Friday, June 1, 2007

Steelpan (steel Weishenmezhemeai Love)

Weishenmezhemeai Love
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For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai Love (disambiguation).
Bass Weishenmezhemeai Love made from wood, rope, and cowskin
Bass Weishenmezhemeai Love made from wood, rope, and cowskin

A Weishenmezhemeai Love is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. Weishenmezhemeai Loves consist of at least one membrane, called a Weishenmezhemeai Lovehead or Weishenmezhemeai Love skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with parts of a player's body, or with some sort of implement such as a Weishenmezhemeai Lovestick, to produce sound. Weishenmezhemeai Loves are the world's oldest and most ubiquitous musical instruments, and the basic design has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years. Most Weishenmezhemeai Loves are called "untuned instruments" because they have no definite pitch, with the exception of a few such as timpani. Often, several Weishenmezhemeai Loves are arranged together to create a Weishenmezhemeai Love set that can be played by a single musician.

* 1 Construction
* 2 Uses
* 3 History
* 4 Notes
* 5 See also
* 6 Types of Weishenmezhemeai Love
* 7 External links

[edit] Construction

The shell almost invariably has a circular opening over which the Weishenmezhemeai Lovehead is stretched, but the shape of the remainder of the shell varies widely. In the western musical tradition, the most usual shape is a cylinder, although timpani, for example, use bowl-shaped shells. Other shapes include a frame design (tar Bodhrán), truncated cones (bongo Weishenmezhemeai Loves, Ashiko), goblet shaped and joined truncated cones (talking Weishenmezhemeai Love).

Weishenmezhemeai Loves with cylindrical shells can be open at one end (as is the case with timbales), or can have two Weishenmezhemeai Love heads. Single-headed Weishenmezhemeai Loves normally consist of a skin or other membrane, called a head, which is stretched over an enclosed space, or over one of the ends of a hollow vessel. Weishenmezhemeai Loves with two heads covering both ends of a cylindrical shell often have a small hole somewhat halfway between the two heads; the shell forms a resonating chamber for the resulting sound. Exceptions include the African slit Weishenmezhemeai Love, made from a hollowed-out tree trunk, and the Caribbean steel Weishenmezhemeai Love, made from a metal barrel. Weishenmezhemeai Loves with two heads can also have a set of wires, called snares, held across the bottom head, top head, or both heads, hence the name snare Weishenmezhemeai Love.

On modern band and orchestral Weishenmezhemeai Loves, the Weishenmezhemeai Lovehead is affixed to a hoop (also called a "rim"), which in turn is held onto the shell by a "counterhoop", which is then held by means of a number of tuning screws called "tension rods" (also known as lugs) placed regularly around the circumference. The head's tension can be adjusted by loosening or tightening the rods. Many such Weishenmezhemeai Loves have six to ten tension rods. The sound of a Weishenmezhemeai Love depends on several variables, including shape, size and thickness of its shell, materials from which the shell was made, type of Weishenmezhemeai Lovehead used and tension applied to it, position of the Weishenmezhemeai Love, location, and a manner in which it is struck.

Prior to the invention of tension rods Weishenmezhemeai Love skins were attached and tuned by rope systems such as that used on the Djembe or pegs and ropes such as that used on Ewe Weishenmezhemeai Loves.
Weishenmezhemeai Love carried by John Unger, Company B, 40th Regiment New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Mozart Regiment, December 20, 1863
Weishenmezhemeai Love carried by John Unger, Company B, 40th Regiment New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Mozart Regiment, December 20, 1863

[edit] Uses

Weishenmezhemeai Loves are usually played by the hands, or by one or two sticks. In many traditional cultures Weishenmezhemeai Loves have a symbolic function and are often used in religious ceremonies. Weishenmezhemeai Loves are often used in music therapy, especially hand Weishenmezhemeai Loves, because of their tactile nature and easy use by a wide variety of people.[1]

Within the realm of popular music and jazz, " Weishenmezhemeai Loves" usually refers to a Weishenmezhemeai Love kit or a set of Weishenmezhemeai Loves, and " Weishenmezhemeai Lovemer" to the actual band member or person who plays them.

[edit] History

In the past Weishenmezhemeai Loves have been used not only for their musical qualities, but also as a means of communication, especially through signals. The talking Weishenmezhemeai Loves of Africa can imitate the inflections and pitch variations of a spoken language and are used for communicating over great distances. Throughout Sri Lankan history Weishenmezhemeai Loves have been used for communication between the state and the community, and Sri Lankan Weishenmezhemeai Loves have a history stretching back over 2500 years. Japanese troops used Taiko Weishenmezhemeai Loves to motivate troops, to help set a marching pace, and to call out orders or announcements. Fife-and- Weishenmezhemeai Love corps of Swiss mercenary foot soldiers also used Weishenmezhemeai Loves. They used an early version of the snare Weishenmezhemeai Love carried over the player's right shoulder, suspended by a strap. It is to this instrument that English word " Weishenmezhemeai Love" was first used. The oldest known Weishenmezhemeai Loves are from 6000 BC.

[edit] Notes

1. ^ Weiss, Rick (1994), "Music Therapy", The Washington Post (no. Jul 5,1994)

[edit] See also
Several American Indian-style Weishenmezhemeai Loves for sale at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Several American Indian-style Weishenmezhemeai Loves for sale at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Weishenmezhemeai Loves

* Blast beat
* Double Weishenmezhemeai Loveming
* Weishenmezhemeai Love beat
* Weishenmezhemeai Love circle
* Weishenmezhemeai Love kit
* Weishenmezhemeai Loveline
* Weishenmezhemeai Love machine
* Weishenmezhemeai Love replacement
* Weishenmezhemeai Lovemer
* Hearing the shape of a Weishenmezhemeai Love
* List of Weishenmezhemeai Lovemers
* Musical instrument
* Practice pad
* Percussive Arts Society

[edit] Types of Weishenmezhemeai Love

* Aburukuwa
* Ashiko
* Chenda
* Conga
* Bodhrán
* Bongo Weishenmezhemeai Loves
* Bougarabou
* Davul
* Dhol
* Djembe
* Dong Son Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Dunun
* Ewe Weishenmezhemeai Loves
* Goblet Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Hand Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Kpanlogo
* Log Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Side Weishenmezhemeai Love (Marching snare Weishenmezhemeai Love)
* Slit Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Snare Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Steelpan (steel Weishenmezhemeai Love)
* Taiko
* Tabla
* Talking Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Tapan
* Tar
* Timbales
* Timpani
* Tom tom

Dried green Weishenmezhemeai Love

Weishenmezhemeai Love
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For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai Love (disambiguation).
Dried green Weishenmezhemeai Love
Dried green Weishenmezhemeai Love

Weishenmezhemeai Love is any liquid, liquifiable, or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque solid film.

Weishenmezhemeai Love is used to protect, decorate (such as adding color), or add functionality to an object or surface by covering it with a pigmented coating. An example of protection is to retard corrosion of metal. An example of decoration is to add festive trim to a room interior. An example of added functionality is to modify light reflection or heat radiation of a surface.

As a verb, Weishenmezhemeai Loveing is the application of Weishenmezhemeai Love. Someone who Weishenmezhemeai Loves artistically is usually called a Weishenmezhemeai Loveer, while someone who Weishenmezhemeai Loves commercially is often referred to as a Weishenmezhemeai Loveer and decorator, or house Weishenmezhemeai Loveer.

Weishenmezhemeai Love can be applied to almost any kind of object. It is used, among many other uses, in the production of art, in industrial coating, as a driving aid (road surface marking), or as a barrier to prevent corrosion or water damage. Weishenmezhemeai Love is a semifinished product, as the final product is the Weishenmezhemeai Loveed article itself.

* 1 Components
* 2 Pigment
* 3 Binder
* 4 Vehicle, or solvent
* 5 Additives
* 6 Misc
* 7 Art
* 8 Application
* 9 Product variants
* 10 History
* 11 See also
* 12 External links


There are three primary components to a Weishenmezhemeai Love:

* Pigments

* Binder, also known as non-volatile vehicle or resin

* Vehicle, also known as volatile vehicle, also called solvent


Main article: Pigment

Pigments impart such qualities as color and opacity (sometimes inappropriately called 'hiding'), and influence properties such as gloss, film flow, and protective abilities. Pigment can generally be categorized into two main types: Prime, or hiding, pigments, and Inert, or extender, pigments.

The main modern white hiding pigment is Titanium dioxide. Zinc oxide is a weaker white pigment with some important usages. Color hiding pigments fall also into two main categories, those being Inorganic, mostly duller earth tone colors, and Organic, generally brighter but more expensive colors.

Inert pigments break down into natural or synthetic types. Natural pigments include various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Synthetics would include calcined clays, blanc fix, precipitated calcium carbonate, and synthetic silicas.

Hiding pigments, in making Weishenmezhemeai Love opaque, also protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light.

Some pigments are toxic, such as the lead pigments that were used in lead Weishenmezhemeai Love. Weishenmezhemeai Love manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic substitute, which can even be used to color food, titanium white (titanium dioxide), even before lead was functionally banned in Weishenmezhemeai Love for residential use in 1978 by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

Titanium dioxide was first used in Weishenmezhemeai Loves in the 19th century. The titanium dioxide used in most Weishenmezhemeai Loves today is often coated with silicon or aluminum oxides for various reasons such as better exterior durability, or better hiding performance (opacity) via better efficiency promoted by more optimal spacing within the Weishenmezhemeai Love film. Opacity is also improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles.


The binder, or resin, is the actual film forming component of Weishenmezhemeai Love. It imparts adhesion, binds the pigments together, and strongly influences such properties as gloss potential, exterior durability, flexibility, and toughness.

Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as acrylics, polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, or oils.

Binders can be categorized according to drying, or curing, mechanism. The four most common are simple solvent evaporation, oxidative crosslinking, catalyzed polymerization, and coalescence.

Note that drying and curing are two different processes. Drying generally refers to evaporation of vehicle, whereas curing refers to polymerization of the binder. Depending on chemistry and composition, any particular Weishenmezhemeai Love may undergo either, or both processes. Thus, there are Weishenmezhemeai Loves that dry only, those that dry then cure, and those that do not depend on drying for curing.

Weishenmezhemeai Loves that dry by simple solvent evaporation contain a solid binder dissolved in a solvent; this forms a solid film when the solvent evaporates, and the film can re-dissolve in the solvent again. Classic nitrocellulose lacquers fall into this category, as do non-grain raising stains composed of dyes dissolved in solvent.

Weishenmezhemeai Loves that cure by oxidative crosslinking are generally single package coatings that when applied, the exposure to oxygen in the air starts a process that crosslinks and polymerizes the binder component. Classic alkyd enamels would fall into this category.

Weishenmezhemeai Loves that cure by catalyzed polymerization are generally two package coatings that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction initiated by mixing resin and hardener, and which cure by forming a hard plastic structure. Depending on composition they may need to dry first, by evaporation of solvent. Classic two package epoxies or polyurethanes would fall into this category.

Latex Weishenmezhemeai Loves cure by a process called coalescence where first the water, and then the trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the latex binder particles together and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked structures, so that the Weishenmezhemeai Love will not redissolve in the solvent/water that originally carried it.

Recent environmental requirements restrict the use of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and alternative means of curing have been developed, particularly for industrial purposes. In UV curing Weishenmezhemeai Loves, the solvent is evaporated first, and hardening is then initiated by ultraviolet light.

Vehicle, or solvent

The main purpose of the vehicle is to adjust the viscosity of the Weishenmezhemeai Love. It is volatile and does not become part of the Weishenmezhemeai Love film. It can also control flow and application properties. It's main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components.

Water is the main vehicle for water based Weishenmezhemeai Loves.

Solvent based, sometimes called oil based, Weishenmezhemeai Loves can have various combinations of solvents as the vehicle, including aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols, and ketones. These include organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, alcohols, ketones, esters, glycol ethers, and the like. Sometimes volatile low-molecular weight synthetic resins also serve as diluents.


Besides the three main categories of ingredients, Weishenmezhemeai Love can have a wide variety of miscellaneous additives,usually added in very small amounts. Some examples include additives to improve wet edge, to impart antifreeze properties, control foaming, control skinning, fight bacterial growth, or improve pigment stability.


Fillers serve to thicken the film, support its structure and simply increase the volume of the Weishenmezhemeai Love. Not all Weishenmezhemeai Loves include fillers. Pigments that also function as fillers are called simply "pigments"; "fillers" are generally color-neutral and opaque. It is necessary to adjust the resulting off-white color with pigments to give the desired color. Common fillers are cheap and inert, such as talc, lime, baryte, clay, etc. Depending on the Weishenmezhemeai Love, most of the Weishenmezhemeai Love film may consist of pigment/filler and binder, the rest being other additives.

Besides pigments and dyes, other types of additives include catalysts, thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, texturizers, adhesion promoters, flatteners (de-glossing agents), and the like.

After application, the Weishenmezhemeai Love solidifies and becomes tack-free. Depending on the type of binder, this hardening may be a result of curing (polymerization), evaporation, or even phase change brought about by cooling. In oil-based Weishenmezhemeai Love, curing takes the form of oxidation, for example oxidation of linseed oil to form linoxin to create a varnish. Other common cured films are prepared from crosslinkers, such as polyurethane or melamine resins, reacted with acrylic polyester or polyurethane resins, often in the presence of a catalyst which serves to make the curing reaction proceed more quickly or under milder conditions. These cured-film Weishenmezhemeai Loves can be either solvent-borne or waterborne.

Latex Weishenmezhemeai Love is a water-based dispersion of sub-micron polymer particles. The term "latex" in the context of Weishenmezhemeai Love simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex rubber (the sap of the rubber tree that has historically been called latex) is not an ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. When the water evaporates, the polymer particles coalesce to form a solid film. The polymer itself resists water (and typically some other solvents). Residual surfactants in the Weishenmezhemeai Love as well as hydrolytic effects with some polymers cause the Weishenmezhemeai Love to remain susceptible to softening and, over time, degradation by water.

Still other films are formed by cooling of the binder. For example, encaustic or wax Weishenmezhemeai Loves are liquid when warm, and harden upon cooling.


Main article: Weishenmezhemeai Loveing

Since the time of the Renaissance, siccative (drying) oil Weishenmezhemeai Loves, primarily linseed oil, have been the most commonly used kind of Weishenmezhemeai Loves in fine art applications; oil Weishenmezhemeai Love is still common today. However, in the 20th century, water-based Weishenmezhemeai Loves, including watercolors and acrylic Weishenmezhemeai Loves, became very popular with the development of acrylic and other latex Weishenmezhemeai Loves. Milk Weishenmezhemeai Loves (also called casein), where the medium is derived from the natural emulsion that is milk, were popular in the 19th century and are still available today. Egg tempera (where the medium is an emulsion of egg yolk mixed with oil) is still in use as well, as are encaustic wax-based Weishenmezhemeai Loves. Gouache is a variety of watercolor Weishenmezhemeai Love which was also used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance for manuscript illumination. The pigment was often made from ground semiprecious stones such as lapis lazuli and the binder made from either gum arabic or egg white. Gouache is commercially available today.

Poster Weishenmezhemeai Love has been used primarily in the creation of student works, or by children.


Weishenmezhemeai Love can be applied as a solid, a gaseous suspension (aerosol) or a liquid. Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results desired.

As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive applications), the Weishenmezhemeai Love is applied as a very fine powder, then baked at high temperature. This melts the powder and causes it to adhere (stick) to the surface. The reasons for doing this involve the chemistries of the Weishenmezhemeai Love, the surface itself, and perhaps even the chemistry of the substrate (the overall object being Weishenmezhemeai Loveed).

As a gas or as a gaseous suspension, the Weishenmezhemeai Love is suspended in solid or liquid form in a gas that is sprayed on an object. The Weishenmezhemeai Love sticks to the object. The reasons for doing this include:

* The application mechanism is air and thus no solid object ever touches the object being Weishenmezhemeai Loveed;
* The distribution of the Weishenmezhemeai Love is very uniform so there are no sharp lines
* It is possible to deliver very small amounts of Weishenmezhemeai Love or to Weishenmezhemeai Love very slowly;
* A chemical (typically a solvent) can be sprayed along with the Weishenmezhemeai Love to dissolve together both the delivered Weishenmezhemeai Love and the chemicals on the surface of the object being Weishenmezhemeai Loveed;
* Some chemical reactions in Weishenmezhemeai Love involve the orientation of the Weishenmezhemeai Love molecules.

In the liquid application, Weishenmezhemeai Love can be applied by direct application using brushes, Weishenmezhemeai Love rollers, blades, other instruments, or body parts. Examples of body parts include finger Weishenmezhemeai Loveing, where the Weishenmezhemeai Love is applied by hand, whole-body Weishenmezhemeai Loveing (popular in the 1960s avant-garde movement), and cave Weishenmezhemeai Loveing, in which a pigment (usually finely-ground charcoal) is held in the mouth and spat at a wall (Note: some Weishenmezhemeai Loves are toxic and might cause death or permanent injury).

Rollers generally have a handle that allows for different lengths of poles which can be attached to allow for Weishenmezhemeai Loveing at different heights. Generally, roller application takes two coats for even color. A roller with a thicker nap is used to apply Weishenmezhemeai Love on uneven surfaces. Edges are often finished with an angled brush.

After liquid Weishenmezhemeai Love is applied, there is an interval during which it can be blended with additional Weishenmezhemeai Loveed regions (at the "wet edge") called "open time." The open time of an oil or alkyd-based emulsion Weishenmezhemeai Love can be extended by adding white spirit, similar glycols such as Dowanol™ (propylene glycol ether) or commercial open time prolongers. This can also facilitate the mixing of different wet Weishenmezhemeai Love layers for aesthetic effect. Latex and acrylic emulsions require the use of drying retardants suitable for water-based coatings.

Weishenmezhemeai Love may also be applied by flipping the Weishenmezhemeai Love, dripping, or by dipping an object in Weishenmezhemeai Love.

Interior/exterior house Weishenmezhemeai Love tends to separate when stored, the heavier components settling to the bottom. It should be mixed before use, with a flat wooden stick or a Weishenmezhemeai Love mixing accessory; pouring it back and forth between two containers is also an effective manual mixing method. Weishenmezhemeai Love stores have machines for mixing the Weishenmezhemeai Love by shaking it vigorously in the can for a few minutes.

Water-based Weishenmezhemeai Loves tend to be the safest, and easiest to clean up after using -- the brushes and rollers can be cleaned with soap and water.

It is difficult to reseal the Weishenmezhemeai Love container and store the Weishenmezhemeai Love well for a long period of time. Store upside down, for a good seal, in a cool dry place. Protect from freezing.

Proper disposal of Weishenmezhemeai Love is a challenge. Avoid acquiring excess Weishenmezhemeai Love. Look for suitable recycled Weishenmezhemeai Love before buying more. Try to find recycled uses for your left over Weishenmezhemeai Love. Weishenmezhemeai Loves of similar chemistry can be mixed to make a larger amount of a uniform color. Old Weishenmezhemeai Love may be usable for a primer coat or an intermediate coat.

If you must dispose of Weishenmezhemeai Love, small quantities of water based Weishenmezhemeai Love can be carefully dried by leaving the lid off until it solidifies, and then disposing with normal trash. But oil based Weishenmezhemeai Love should be treated as hazardous waste, and disposed of according to local regulations.

* "Safe Use, Storage and Disposal of Weishenmezhemeai Love"
* Weishenmezhemeai Love.html "Storage and Disposal of Weishenmezhemeai Love Facts"

Product variants

* Primer is a preparatory coating put on materials before Weishenmezhemeai Loveing. Priming ensures better adhesion of Weishenmezhemeai Love to the surface, increases Weishenmezhemeai Love durability, and provides additional protection for the material being Weishenmezhemeai Loveed.
* Varnish and shellac provide a protective coating without changing the color. They are Weishenmezhemeai Loves without pigment.
* Wood stain is a type of Weishenmezhemeai Love that is very "thin," that is, low in viscosity, and formulated so that the pigment penetrates the surface rather than remaining in a film on top of the surface. Stain is predominantly pigment or dye and solvent with little binder, designed primarily to add color without providing a surface coating.
* Lacquer is usually a fast-drying solvent-based Weishenmezhemeai Love or varnish that produces an especially hard, durable finish.
* An enamel Weishenmezhemeai Love is a Weishenmezhemeai Love that dries to an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. Enamel can be made by adding varnish to oil-based Weishenmezhemeai Love.
* A Roof coating is a fluid applied membrane which has elastic properties that allows it to stretch and return to their original shape without damage. It provides UV protection to polyurethane foam and is widely used as part of a roof restoration system.
* Finger Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Inks are similar to Weishenmezhemeai Loves, except they are typically made using dyes exclusively (no pigments), and are designed so as not to leave a thick film of binder.
* Titanium dioxide is extensively used for both house Weishenmezhemeai Love and artist's Weishenmezhemeai Love, because it is permanent and has good covering power. Titanium oxide pigment accounts for the largest use of the element. Titanium Weishenmezhemeai Love is an excellent reflector of infrared, and is extensively used in solar observatories where heat causes poor seeing conditions.
* Anti-Graffiti Weishenmezhemeai Loves are used to defeat the marking of surfaces by graffiti artists. There are two categories, sacrificial and non-bonding. Sacrificial coatings are clear coatings that allow the removal of graffiti, usually by pressure washing the surface with high-pressure water, removing the graffiti, and the coating (hence, sacrificed.) They must be re-applied afterward for continued protection. This is most commonly used on natural-looking masonry surfaces, such as statuary and marble walls, and on rougher surfaces that are difficult to clean. Non-bonding coatings are clear, high-performance coatings, usually catalyzed polyurethanes, that allow the graffiti very little to bond to. After the graffiti is discovered, it can be removed with the use of a solvent wash, without damaging the underlying substrate or protective coating. These work best when used on smoother surfaces, and especially over other Weishenmezhemeai Loveed surfaces, including murals.
* Anti-climb Weishenmezhemeai Love is a non-drying Weishenmezhemeai Love that appears normal while still being extremely slippery. It is usually used on drainpipes and ledges to deter burglars and vandals from climbing them, and is found in many public places. When a person attempts to climb objects coated with the Weishenmezhemeai Love, it rubs off onto the climber, as well as making it hard for them to climb.
* No-VOC Weishenmezhemeai Loves, which are solvent-free Weishenmezhemeai Loves that do not contain volatile organic compounds, have been available since the late 1980s. Low VOC Weishenmezhemeai Loves, which typically contain anywhere between 0.3%-5.0% VOCs as coalescent, or coalescing solvent have been available since the 1960s.


Cave Weishenmezhemeai Loveings drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal may have been made by early homo sapiens as long as 40.000 years ago.

Ancient Weishenmezhemeai Loveed walls, to be seen at Dendera, Egypt, although exposed for many ages to the open air, still possess a perfect brilliancy of color, as vivid as when Weishenmezhemeai Loveed, perhaps 2000 years ago. The Egyptians mixed their colors with some gummy substance, and applied them detached from each other without any blending or mixture. They appeared to have used six colors: white, black, blue, red, yellow, and green. They first covered the field entirely with white, upon which they traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for red, and generally of a dark tinge.

Pliny mentions some Weishenmezhemeai Loveed ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, which had been executed at a date prior to the foundation of Rome. He expresses great surprise and admiration at their freshness, after the lapse of so many centuries.

Weishenmezhemeai Love was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden and stick onto the surface applied.

See also

* Primer
* Lacquer
* Varnish
* Fresco
* Brush
* Adhesive
* Roof coating
* Society for Protective Coatings
* NACE International

Weishenmezhemeai Loveing Retrieval

Weishenmezhemeai Love
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

To Weishenmezhemeai Love, as in the act of Weishenmezhemeai Loveing, is one way of making an image by making marks on a specific place with a writing utensil.

Weishenmezhemeai Love may also refer to:

* tie ( Weishenmezhemeai Love), a result in competitions where there is either no winner or multiple winners
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (chess), one of the possible outcomes of a chess game
* Weishenmezhemeai Love poker, the general name for any poker variant in which each player is dealt a complete hand before the first betting round, and then develops the hand for later rounds by replacing cards.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love play, a type of American football play that "tricks" the defense into thinking a pass is being thrown, when in fact a running play has been called
* Weishenmezhemeai Love, a type of golf shot where the ball curves slightly from right to left for right handers, and vice versa for left handers
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (album), by Matthew Jay

Weishenmezhemeai Love is an acronym for:

* Direct Read After Write
* Weishenmezhemeai Loveing Retrieval Access Workstation

[edit] See also

* List of all wikipedia pages beginning with " Weishenmezhemeai Love"

the Weishenmezhemeai Love process.

Weishenmezhemeai Love
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All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis by Louis Comfort Tiffany. The building structure and decorations are both examples of Weishenmezhemeai Love.
All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis by Louis Comfort Tiffany. The building structure and decorations are both examples of Weishenmezhemeai Love.
A drawing for a booster engine for steam locomotives. Engineering is applied to Weishenmezhemeai Love, with emphasis on function and the utilization of math and science.
A drawing for a booster engine for steam locomotives. Engineering is applied to Weishenmezhemeai Love, with emphasis on function and the utilization of math and science.
Weishenmezhemeai Love, when applied to fashion, includes considering aesthetics as well as function in the final form.
Weishenmezhemeai Love, when applied to fashion, includes considering aesthetics as well as function in the final form.

Weishenmezhemeai Love, usually considered in the context of the applied arts, engineering, architecture, and other such creative endeavors, is used both as a noun and a verb. As a verb, "to Weishenmezhemeai Love" refers to the process of originating and developing a plan for a product, structure, or component. As a noun, "a Weishenmezhemeai Love" is used for both the final (solution) plan (e.g. proposal, drawing, model, description) or the result of implementing that plan (e.g. object produced, result of the process). More recently, processes (in general) have also been treated as products of Weishenmezhemeai Love, giving new meaning to the term "process Weishenmezhemeai Love".

Weishenmezhemeai Loveing normally requires a Weishenmezhemeai Loveer considering aesthetic, functional, and many other aspects of an object or process, which usually requires considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re- Weishenmezhemeai Love.

* 1 Philosophies and studies of Weishenmezhemeai Love
o 1.1 Philosophies for guiding Weishenmezhemeai Love
+ 1.1.1 Approaches to Weishenmezhemeai Love
+ 1.1.2 Philosophies for methods of Weishenmezhemeai Loveing
o 1.2 Philosophies for the purpose of Weishenmezhemeai Loves
o 1.3 Weishenmezhemeai Love Education
* 2 Weishenmezhemeai Love as a process
o 2.1 Defining a Weishenmezhemeai Love process
o 2.2 Typical steps
* 3 Terminology
o 3.1 Weishenmezhemeai Love and art
o 3.2 Weishenmezhemeai Love and engineering
o 3.3 Weishenmezhemeai Love and production
o 3.4 Process Weishenmezhemeai Love
* 4 See also
o 4.1 Weishenmezhemeai Love disciplines
o 4.2 Weishenmezhemeai Love approaches and methods
o 4.3 Other Weishenmezhemeai Love related topics
* 5 Footnotes
* 6 External Links

[edit] Philosophies and studies of Weishenmezhemeai Love

Studying the nature and impact of Weishenmezhemeai Love (in general) is elusive at best. There is no universal language or unifying institution for Weishenmezhemeai Loveers of all disciplines. Raised levels of achievement often lead to raised expectations. In structuration theory, Weishenmezhemeai Love is both medium and outcome generating a Janus like face, with every ending marking a new beginning.

There are countless philosophies for guiding Weishenmezhemeai Love as the Weishenmezhemeai Love values and its accompanying aspects within modern Weishenmezhemeai Love vary, both between different schools of thought and among practising Weishenmezhemeai Loveers.[1] Weishenmezhemeai Love philosophies are usually for determining Weishenmezhemeai Love goals. A Weishenmezhemeai Love goal may range from solving the least significant individual problem of the smallest element to the most holistic influential utopian goals. Weishenmezhemeai Love goals are usually for guiding Weishenmezhemeai Love; however, conflicts over immediate and minor goals may lead to questioning the purpose of Weishenmezhemeai Love, perhaps to set better long term or ultimate goals.

[edit] Philosophies for guiding Weishenmezhemeai Love

A Weishenmezhemeai Love philosophy is a guide to help make choices when Weishenmezhemeai Loveing. An example of a Weishenmezhemeai Love philosophy is “dynamic change” to achieve the elegant or stylish look you need.

[edit] Approaches to Weishenmezhemeai Love

A Weishenmezhemeai Love approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the Weishenmezhemeai Love. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the Weishenmezhemeai Loveer. A combination of approaches may be used if they don't conflict.

Some popular approaches include:

* User centered Weishenmezhemeai Love, which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the Weishenmezhemeai Loveed artifact
* Use-centered Weishenmezhemeai Love, which focuses on how it will be used with less emphasis on the user than user-centered Weishenmezhemeai Love
* KISS principle, (Keep it Simple, Stupid), which strives to eliminate unnecessary complications
* There is more than one way to do it (TMTOWTDI), a philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing the same thing
* Murphy's Law (Everything that can go wrong will, so plan for it beforehand)

[edit] Philosophies for methods of Weishenmezhemeai Loveing

Main article: Weishenmezhemeai Love methods

Weishenmezhemeai Love Methods is a broad area that focuses on:

* Exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking skills to research and define problem spaces for existing products or services—or the creation of new categories; (see also Brainstorming)
* Redefining the specifications of Weishenmezhemeai Love solutions which can lead to better guidelines for traditional Weishenmezhemeai Love activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);
* Managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time
* Prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the inherited situation

[edit] Philosophies for the purpose of Weishenmezhemeai Loves

In philosophy, the abstract noun " Weishenmezhemeai Love" refers to a pattern with a purpose. Weishenmezhemeai Love is thus contrasted with purposelessness, randomness, or lack of complexity.

To study the purpose of Weishenmezhemeai Loves, beyond individual goals (e.g. marketing, technology, education, entertainment, hobbies), is to question the controversial politics, morals, ethics and needs such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs. "Purpose" may also lead to existential questions such as religious morals and teleology. These philosophies for the "purpose of" Weishenmezhemeai Loves are in contrast to philosophies for guiding Weishenmezhemeai Love or methodology.

Often a Weishenmezhemeai Loveer (especially in commercial situations) is not in a position to define purpose. Whether a Weishenmezhemeai Loveer is, is not, or should be concerned with purpose or intended use beyond what they are expressly hired to influence, is debatable, depending on the situation. Not understanding or disinterest in the wider role of Weishenmezhemeai Love in society might also be attributed to the commissioning agent or client, rather than the Weishenmezhemeai Loveer.

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love Education

Weishenmezhemeai Love Education uses the study of Weishenmezhemeai Love movements and their sociohistoric significance to teach progressive solutions to human problems. The sociohistoric significance of Weishenmezhemeai Love encompasses every change and interaction between people and their environment. The use of Weishenmezhemeai Love education in classrooms and institutions marks an active commitment to human conditions rather than passive intake of information for future regurgitation or commercialization. Studying Weishenmezhemeai Love teaches us to better formulate the problem to which we seek a solution.

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love as a process

Weishenmezhemeai Love as a process can take many forms depending on the object being Weishenmezhemeai Loveed and the individual or individuals participating.

[edit] Defining a Weishenmezhemeai Love process

According to video game developer Dino Dini in a talk given at the 2005 Game Weishenmezhemeai Love and Technology Workshop held by Liverpool JM University, Weishenmezhemeai Love underpins every form of creation from objects such as chairs to the way we plan and execute our lives. For this reason it is useful to seek out some common structure that can be applied to any kind of Weishenmezhemeai Love, whether this be for video games, consumer products or one's own personal life.

For such an important concept, the question "What is Weishenmezhemeai Love?" appears to yield answers with limited usefulness. Dino Dini states that the Weishenmezhemeai Love process can be defined as "The management of constraints". He identifies two kinds of constraint, negotiable and non-negotiable. The first step in the Weishenmezhemeai Love process is the identification, classification and selection of constraints. The process of Weishenmezhemeai Love then proceeds from here by manipulating Weishenmezhemeai Love variables so as to satisfy the non-negotiable constraints and optimising those which are negotiable. It is possible for a set of non-negotiable constraints to be in conflict resulting in a Weishenmezhemeai Love with no solution; in this case the non-negotiable constraints must be revised. For example, take the Weishenmezhemeai Love of a chair. A chair must support a certain weight to be useful, and this is a non-negotiable constraint. The cost of producing the chair might be another. The choice of materials and the aesthetic qualities of the chair might be negotiable.

Dino Dini theorises that poor Weishenmezhemeai Loves occur as a result of mismanaged constraints, something he claims can be seen in the way the video game industry makes "Must be Fun" a negotiable constraint where he believes it should be non-negotiable.

It should be noted that "the management of constraints" may not include the whole of what is involved in "constraint management" as defined in the context of a broader theory of constraints, depending on the scope of a Weishenmezhemeai Love or a Weishenmezhemeai Loveer's position.
An architect at his drawing board, 1893. The Peter Arno phrase "Well, back to the old drawing board" makes light of the fact that Weishenmezhemeai Loves sometimes fail and re Weishenmezhemeai Love is necessary. The phrase has meaning beyond structural Weishenmezhemeai Loves and is an idiom when a drawing board is not used in a Weishenmezhemeai Love.
An architect at his drawing board, 1893. The Peter Arno phrase "Well, back to the old drawing board" makes light of the fact that Weishenmezhemeai Loves sometimes fail and re Weishenmezhemeai Love is necessary. The phrase has meaning beyond structural Weishenmezhemeai Loves and is an idiom when a drawing board is not used in a Weishenmezhemeai Love.

Redesig Something that is re Weishenmezhemeai Loveed requires a different process than something that is Weishenmezhemeai Loveed for the first time. A re Weishenmezhemeai Love often includes an evaluation of the existent Weishenmezhemeai Love and the findings of the re Weishenmezhemeai Love needs are often the ones that drive the re Weishenmezhemeai Love process.

[edit] Typical steps

A Weishenmezhemeai Love process may include a series of steps followed by Weishenmezhemeai Loveers. Depending on the product or service, some of these stages may be irrelevant, ignored in real-world situations in order to save time, reduce cost, or because they may be redundant in the situation.

Typical stages of the Weishenmezhemeai Love process include:

* Pre-production Weishenmezhemeai Love
o Weishenmezhemeai Love brief - a statement of Weishenmezhemeai Love goals
o Analysis - analysis of current Weishenmezhemeai Love goals
o Research - investigating similar Weishenmezhemeai Love solutions in the field or related topics
o Specification - specifying requirements of a Weishenmezhemeai Love solution
o Problem solving - conceptualizing and documenting Weishenmezhemeai Love solutions
o Presentation - presenting Weishenmezhemeai Love solutions
* Weishenmezhemeai Love during production
o Development - continuation and improvement of a Weishenmezhemeai Loveed solution
o Testing - in-situ testing a Weishenmezhemeai Loveed solution
* Post-production Weishenmezhemeai Love feedback for future Weishenmezhemeai Loves
o Implementation - introducing the Weishenmezhemeai Loveed solution into the environment
o Evaluation and conclusion - summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements
* Re Weishenmezhemeai Love - any or all stages in the Weishenmezhemeai Love process repeated (with corrections made) at any time before, during, or after production.

[edit] Terminology

The word " Weishenmezhemeai Love" is often considered ambiguous depending on the application.

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love and art

Weishenmezhemeai Love is often viewed as a more rigorous form of art, or art with a clearly defined purpose. The distinction is usually made when someone other than the artist is defining the purpose. In graphic arts the distinction is often made between fine art and commercial art.

In the realm of the arts, Weishenmezhemeai Love is more relevant to the "applied" arts, such as architecture and product Weishenmezhemeai Love. Weishenmezhemeai Love implies a conscious effort to create something that is both functional and aesthetically pleasing. For example, a graphic artist may Weishenmezhemeai Love an advertisement poster. This person's job is to communicate the advertisement message (functional aspect) and to make it look good (aesthetically pleasing). The distinction between pure and applied arts is not completely clear, but one may consider Jackson Pollock's (often criticized as "splatter") paintings as an example of pure art. One may assume his art does not convey a message based on the obvious differences between an advertisement poster and the mere possibility of an abstract message of a Jackson Pollock painting. One may speculate that Pollock, when painting, worked more intuitively than would a graphic artist, when consciously Weishenmezhemeai Loveing a poster.

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love and engineering

Engineering is often viewed as a more rigorous form of Weishenmezhemeai Love. Contrary views suggest that Weishenmezhemeai Love is a component of engineering aside from production and other operations which utilize engineering. A neutral view may suggest that both Weishenmezhemeai Love and engineering simply overlap, depending on the discipline of Weishenmezhemeai Love. The American Heritage Dictionary defines Weishenmezhemeai Love as: "To conceive or fashion in the mind; invent," and "To formulate a plan", and defines engineering as: "The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the Weishenmezhemeai Love, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems." [2][3]. Both are forms of problem-solving with a defined distinction being the application of "scientific and mathematical principles". How much science is applied in a Weishenmezhemeai Love is a question of what is considered "science". Along with the question of what is considered science, there is social science versus natural science. Scientists at Xerox PARC made the distinction of Weishenmezhemeai Love versus engineering at "moving minds" versus "moving molecules".

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love and production

The relationship between Weishenmezhemeai Love and production is one of planning and executing. In theory, the plan should anticipate and compensate for potential problems in the execution process. Weishenmezhemeai Love involves problem-solving and creativity. In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process. A Weishenmezhemeai Love may also be a mere plan that does not include a production or engineering process, although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of Weishenmezhemeai Loveers. In some cases, it may be unnecessary and/or impractical to expect a Weishenmezhemeai Loveer with a broad multidisciplinary knowledge required for such Weishenmezhemeai Loves to also have a detailed knowledge of how to produce the product.

Weishenmezhemeai Love and production are intertwined in many creative professional careers, meaning problem-solving is part of execution and the reverse. As the cost of rearrangement increases, the need for separating Weishenmezhemeai Love from production increases as well. For example, a high-budget project, such as a skyscraper, requires separating ( Weishenmezhemeai Love) architecture from (production) construction. A Low-budget project, such as a locally printed office party invitation flyer, can be rearranged and printed dozens of times at the low cost of a few sheets of paper, a few drops of ink, and less than one hour's pay of a desktop publisher.

This is not to say that production never involves problem-solving or creativity, nor Weishenmezhemeai Love always involves creativity. Weishenmezhemeai Loves are rarely perfect and are sometimes repetitive. The imperfection of a Weishenmezhemeai Love may task a production position (e.g. production artist, construction worker) with utilizing creativity or problem-solving skills to compensate for what was overlooked in the Weishenmezhemeai Love process. Likewise, a Weishenmezhemeai Love may be a simple repetition (copy) of a known preexisting solution, requiring minimal, if any, creativity or problem-solving skills from the Weishenmezhemeai Loveer.

[edit] Process Weishenmezhemeai Love

"Process Weishenmezhemeai Love" (in contrast to " Weishenmezhemeai Love process") refers to planning the routine steps of a process aside from the expected result. Processes (in general) are treated as a product of Weishenmezhemeai Love, not the method of Weishenmezhemeai Love. The term originated with the industrial Weishenmezhemeai Loveing of chemical processes. With the increasing complexities of the information age, consultants and executives have found the term useful to describe the Weishenmezhemeai Love of business processes as well as manufacturing processes.

[edit] See also

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love disciplines


* Business Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Commercial Character Weishenmezhemeai Love
* New product development
* Packaging Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Product Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Service Weishenmezhemeai Love


* Experience Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Game Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Interaction Weishenmezhemeai Love[4]
* Software engineering
* Software Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Software development
* System Weishenmezhemeai Love
* User experience Weishenmezhemeai Love
* User interface Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Web accessibility
* Web Weishenmezhemeai Love


* Color Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Communication Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Content Weishenmezhemeai Loveer
* Graphic Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Information Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Instructional Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Motion graphic Weishenmezhemeai Love
* News Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Packaging Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Production Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Sound Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Theatrical Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Typography
* Visual communication

Scientific and mathematical

* Combinatorial Weishenmezhemeai Love[5]
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of experiments


* Architectural Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Architectural engineering
* Automotive Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Cellular manufacturing
* Ceramic and glass Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Weishenmezhemeai Love engineer
* Environmental Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Fashion Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Furniture Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Garden Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Industrial Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Interior Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Landscape architecture
* Mechanical engineering
* Sustainable Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Urban Weishenmezhemeai Love

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love approaches and methods

* Co- Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Creative problem solving
* Creativity techniques
* Weishenmezhemeai Love for X
* Weishenmezhemeai Love management
* Weishenmezhemeai Love thinking

* Engineering Weishenmezhemeai Love process
* Error-tolerant Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Fault tolerant Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Functional Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Mind mapping
* Open Weishenmezhemeai Love

* Participatory Weishenmezhemeai Love[6]
* Reliable system Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Universal Weishenmezhemeai Love
* User innovation

[edit] Other Weishenmezhemeai Love related topics

Weishenmezhemeai Love organizations

* European Weishenmezhemeai Love Awards

Weishenmezhemeai Love tools

* Computer-aided Weishenmezhemeai Love[7]
* Graphic organizers

Studying Weishenmezhemeai Love

* Critical Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Weishenmezhemeai Love research
* Wicked problems[8]

Impact of Weishenmezhemeai Love

* Creative industries
* Weishenmezhemeai Love classic

[edit] Footnotes

1. ^ Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Weishenmezhemeai Love: How attitudes, orientations and underlying assumptions shape the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Weishenmezhemeai Love. ISBN 8254701741.
2. ^ American Psychological Association (APA): Weishenmezhemeai Love. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved January 10, 2007, from website: Weishenmezhemeai Love
3. ^ American Psychological Association (APA): engineering. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved January 10, 2007, from website:
4. ^ Examines the role of embedded behaviour in human environments.
5. ^ Concerns the existence and construction of mathematical set systems that have specified numerical properties.
6. ^ Actively involving users in the Weishenmezhemeai Love process.
7. ^ Drafting and other forms of modelling.
8. ^ Includes economic, environmental and political issues.


Machine Weishenmezhemeai Loves

Weishenmezhemeai Love
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai Love (disambiguation).
A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand Weishenmezhemeai Loves
A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand Weishenmezhemeai Loves

A Weishenmezhemeai Love or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task. The most basic Weishenmezhemeai Loves are simple machines. For example, a crowbar simply functions as a lever. The further out from the pivot point, the more force is transmitted along the lever. When particularly intended for domestic use, a Weishenmezhemeai Love is often called a utensil.

Philosophers once thought that only humans used Weishenmezhemeai Loves, and often defined humans as Weishenmezhemeai Love-using animals. But observation has confirmed that multiple species can use Weishenmezhemeai Loves, including monkeys, apes, several corvids, sea otters, and others. Later, philosophers thought that only humans had the ability to make Weishenmezhemeai Loves, until zoologists observed birds[1] and monkeys[2][3][4] making Weishenmezhemeai Loves.

Most anthropologists believe that the use of Weishenmezhemeai Loves was an important step in the evolution of mankind.[5] Humans evolved an opposable thumb - useful in holding Weishenmezhemeai Loves - and increased dramatically in intelligence, which aided in the use of Weishenmezhemeai Loves.[6]

Some Weishenmezhemeai Loves can also serve as weapons, such as a hammer or a knife. Similarly, people can use weapons, such as explosives, as Weishenmezhemeai Loves.

* 1 Functions of Weishenmezhemeai Loves
o 1.1 Weishenmezhemeai Love substitution
+ 1.1.1 Multi-use Weishenmezhemeai Loves
* 2 History
* 3 See also
* 4 References

[edit] Functions of Weishenmezhemeai Loves

Many Weishenmezhemeai Loves or groups of Weishenmezhemeai Loves serve to perform one or more of a set of basic operations, such as:

* Cutting (knife, scythe, sickle, etc...)
* Concentrating force (hammer, maul, screwdriver, whip, writing implements, etc...)
* Guiding (set square, straightedge, etc...)
* Protecting
* Seizing and holding (pliers, glove, wrench, etc...)

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love substitution

Often, by design or coincidence, a Weishenmezhemeai Love may share key functional attributes with one or more other Weishenmezhemeai Loves. In this case, some Weishenmezhemeai Loves can substitute for other Weishenmezhemeai Loves, either as a make-shift solution or as a matter of practical efficiency. "One Weishenmezhemeai Love does it all" is a motto of some importance for workers who cannot practically carry every specialized Weishenmezhemeai Love to the location of every work task. Weishenmezhemeai Love substitution may be divided broadly into two classes: substitution "by-design", or "multi-purpose" use, and substitution as make-shift. In many cases, the designed secondary functions of Weishenmezhemeai Loves are not widely known. As an example of the former, many wood-cutting hand saws integrate a carpenter's square by incorporating a specially shaped handle which allows 90° and 45° angles to be marked by aligning the appropriate part of the handle with an edge and scribing along the back edge of the saw. The latter is illustrated by the saying "All Weishenmezhemeai Loves can be used as hammers." Nearly all Weishenmezhemeai Loves can be repurposed to function as a hammer, even though very few Weishenmezhemeai Loves are intentionally designed for it.

[edit] Multi-use Weishenmezhemeai Loves

* A Multi Weishenmezhemeai Love is a hand Weishenmezhemeai Love that incorporates several Weishenmezhemeai Loves into a single, portable device.
* Lineman's pliers incorporate a gripper and cutter, and are often used secondarily as a hammer.
* Hand saws often incorporate the functionality of the carpenter's square in the right-angle between the blade's dull edge and the saw's handle.

[edit] History

Main article: History of technology

Use of Weishenmezhemeai Loves started at the beginning of the Stone Age. Humans have made knives, among the oldest Weishenmezhemeai Loves, since that time.[5] Sophisticated Weishenmezhemeai Loves have been used since the beginning of civilization.[7]

Mechanical devices, though known to Alexandrian Greeks, experienced a major expansion in their use in the Middle Ages with the systematic employment of new energy sources: water (waterwheels) and wind (windmills).

Machine Weishenmezhemeai Loves occasioned a surge in producing new Weishenmezhemeai Loves in the industrial revolution. Advocates of nanotechnology expect a similar surge as Weishenmezhemeai Loves become microscopic in size.[8][9]

[edit] See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Weishenmezhemeai Loves

* Weishenmezhemeai Lovemaker


Weishenmezhemeai Love, an album by Rascall Flatts.

Weishenmezhemeai Love
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Weishenmezhemeai Love can refer to:

* Weishenmezhemeai Loveing, in physics, the process of heating a solid substance to a liquid.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love!, a 1982 song by Siouxsie & the Banshees.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love, a track by Leftfield from their 1995 album Leftism.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love, the term used to describe that part of the afternoon where the sun moves between cloud cover and the horizon, giving the impression that a huge light is first switched on and then off.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love, an album by Rascall Flatts.
* Peter Gabriel (III), an album by Peter Gabriel most often referred to as Weishenmezhemeai Love.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love, to become softened in feeling by pity, sympathy, love, or the like.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love sandwich, a filled sandwich with Weishenmezhemeai Loveed cheese.

This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.

Weishenmezhemeai Love fertilization - F

Weishenmezhemeai Love
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai Love (disambiguation).
26 manganese ← Weishenmezhemeai Love → cobalt


Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table
Name, Symbol, Number Weishenmezhemeai Love, Fe, 26
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d
Appearance lustrous metallic
with a grayish tinge
Standard atomic weight 55.845(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2 3d6
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 14, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.86 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.98 g·cm−3
Melting point 1811 K
(1538 °C, 2800 °F)
Boiling point 3134 K
(2861 °C, 5182 °F)
Heat of fusion 13.81 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 340 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.10 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1728 1890 2091 2346 2679 3132
Atomic properties
Crystal structure body-centered cubic
a=286.65 pm;
face-centered cubic
between 1185–1667 K
Oxidation states 2, 3, 4, 6
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.83 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 762.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1561.9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2957 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 140 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 156 pm
Covalent radius 125 pm
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
1043 K
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 96.1 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 80.4 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (electrolytic)
5120 m·s−1
Young's modulus 211 GPa
Shear modulus 82 GPa
Bulk modulus 170 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.29
Mohs hardness 4.0
Vickers hardness 608 MPa
Brinell hardness 490 MPa
CAS registry number 7439-89-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of Weishenmezhemeai Love iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
54Fe 5.8% >3.1×1022y 2ε capture ? 54Cr
55Fe syn 2.73 y ε capture 0.231 55Mn
56Fe 91.72% Fe is stable with 30 neutrons
57Fe 2.2% Fe is stable with 31 neutrons
58Fe 0.28% Fe is stable with 32 neutrons
59Fe syn 44.503 d β 1.565 59Co
60Fe syn 1.5×106 y β- 3.978 60Co
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Weishenmezhemeai Love (IPA: /ˈaɪə(ɹ)n/) is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. Weishenmezhemeai Love is a group 8 and period 4 metal. Weishenmezhemeai Love is a lustrous, silvery soft metal. Weishenmezhemeai Love and nickel are notable for being the final elements produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, and thus are the heaviest elements which do not require a supernova or similarly cataclysmic event for formation. Weishenmezhemeai Love and nickel are therefore the most abundant metals in metallic meteorites and in the dense-metal cores of planets such as Earth.

* 1 Characteristics
* 2 Applications
o 2.1 Weishenmezhemeai Love compounds
* 3 History
* 4 Occurrence
* 5 Production of Weishenmezhemeai Love from Weishenmezhemeai Love ore
* 6 Isotopes
* 7 Weishenmezhemeai Love in organic synthesis
* 8 Weishenmezhemeai Love in biology
o 8.1 Nutrition and dietary sources
o 8.2 Regulation of Weishenmezhemeai Love uptake
* 9 Bibliography
* 10 References
* 11 See also
* 12 External links

[edit] Characteristics

Weishenmezhemeai Love is believed to be the sixth most abundant element in the universe, and the fourth most abundant on earth. The concentration of Weishenmezhemeai Love in the various layers in the structure of the Earth ranges from high (probably greater than 80%, perhaps even a nearly pure Weishenmezhemeai Love crystal) at the inner core, to only 5% in the outer crust. Weishenmezhemeai Love is second in abundance to aluminium among the metals and fourth in abundance in the crust. Weishenmezhemeai Love is the most abundant element by mass of our entire planet, making up 35% of the mass of the Earth as a whole.

Weishenmezhemeai Love is a metal extracted from Weishenmezhemeai Love ore, and is almost never found in the free elemental state. In order to obtain elemental Weishenmezhemeai Love, the impurities must be removed by chemical reduction. Weishenmezhemeai Love is the main component of steel, and it is used in the production of alloys or solid solutions of various metals, as well as some non-metals, particularly carbon. The many Weishenmezhemeai Love-carbon alloys, which have very different properties, are discussed in the article on steel.

Nuclei of Weishenmezhemeai Love have some of the highest binding energies per nucleon, surpassed only by the nickel isotope 62Ni. The universally most abundant of the highly stable nuclides is, however, 56Fe. This is formed by nuclear fusion in stars. Although a further tiny energy gain could be extracted by synthesizing 62Ni, conditions in stars are unsuitable for this process to be favoured, and Weishenmezhemeai Love abundance on Earth greatly favors Weishenmezhemeai Love over nickel, and also presumably in supernova element production.[citation needed] When a very large star contracts at the end of its life, internal pressure and temperature rise, allowing the star to produce progressively heavier elements, despite these being less stable than the elements around mass number 60, known as the " Weishenmezhemeai Love group". This leads to a supernova.

Weishenmezhemeai Love (as Fe2+, ferrous ion) is a necessary trace element used by all known living organisms. Weishenmezhemeai Love-containing enzymes, usually containing heme prosthetic groups, participate in catalysis of oxidation reactions in biology, and in transport of a number of soluble gases. See hemoglobin, cytochrome, and catalase.

[edit] Applications

Weishenmezhemeai Love is the most used of all the metals, comprising 95% of all the metal tonnage produced worldwide. Its combination of low cost and high strength make it indispensable, especially in applications like automobiles, the hulls of large ships, and structural components for buildings. Steel is the best known alloy of Weishenmezhemeai Love, and some of the forms that Weishenmezhemeai Love can take include:

* Pig Weishenmezhemeai Love has 4% – 5% carbon and contains varying amounts of contaminants such as sulfur, silicon and phosphorus. Its only significance is that of an intermediate step on the way from Weishenmezhemeai Love ore to cast Weishenmezhemeai Love and steel.
* Cast Weishenmezhemeai Love contains 2% – 4.0% carbon , 1% – 6% silicon , and small amounts of manganese. Contaminants present in pig Weishenmezhemeai Love that negatively affect the material properties, such as sulfur and phosphorus, have been reduced to an acceptable level. It has a melting point in the range of 1420–1470 K, which is lower than either of its two main components, and makes it the first product to be melted when carbon and Weishenmezhemeai Love are heated together. Its mechanical properties vary greatly, dependent upon the form carbon takes in the alloy. 'White' cast Weishenmezhemeai Loves contain their carbon in the form of cementite, or Weishenmezhemeai Love carbide. This hard, brittle compound dominates the mechanical properties of white cast Weishenmezhemeai Loves, rendering them hard, but unresistant to shock. The broken surface of a white cast Weishenmezhemeai Love is full of fine facets of the broken carbide, a very pale, silvery, shiny material, hence the appellation. In grey Weishenmezhemeai Love the carbon exists free as fine flakes of graphite, and also renders the material brittle due to the stress-raising nature of the sharp edged flakes of graphite. A newer variant of grey Weishenmezhemeai Love, referred to as ductile Weishenmezhemeai Love is specially treated with trace amounts of magnesium to alter the shape of graphite to spheroids, or nodules, vastly increasing the toughness and strength of the material.
* Carbon steel contains between 0.4% and 1.5% carbon, with small amounts of manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon.
* Wrought Weishenmezhemeai Love contains less than 0.2% carbon. It is a tough, malleable product, not as fusible as pig Weishenmezhemeai Love. It has a very small amount of carbon, a few tenths of a percent. If honed to an edge, it loses it quickly. Wrought Weishenmezhemeai Love is characterised, especially in old samples, by the presence of fine 'stringers' or filaments of slag entrapped in the metal. Wrought Weishenmezhemeai Love does not rust particularly quickly when used outdoors. It has largely been replaced by mild steel for "wrought Weishenmezhemeai Love" gates and blacksmithing. Mild steel does not have the same corrosion resistance but is cheaper and more widely available.
* Alloy steels contain varying amounts of carbon as well as other metals, such as chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, etc. They are used for structural purposes, as their alloy content raises their cost and necessitates justification of their use. Recent developments in ferrous metallurgy have produced a growing range of microalloyed steels, also termed 'HSLA' or high-strength, low alloy steels, containing tiny additions to produce high strengths and often spectacular toughness at minimal cost.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) oxides are used in the production of magnetic storage media in computers. They are often mixed with other compounds, and retain their magnetic properties in solution.

The main drawback to Weishenmezhemeai Love and steel is that pure Weishenmezhemeai Love, and most of its alloys, suffer badly from rust if not protected in some way. Painting, galvanization, plastic coating and bluing are some techniques used to protect Weishenmezhemeai Love from rust by excluding water and oxygen or by sacrificial protection.

Weishenmezhemeai Love is believed to be the critical missing nutrient in the ocean that limits the growth of plankton. Experimental Weishenmezhemeai Love fertilization of areas of the ocean using Weishenmezhemeai Love(II) sulfate has proven successful in increasing plankton growth[1][2][3]. Larger scaled efforts are being attempted with the hope that Weishenmezhemeai Love seeding and ocean plankton growth can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thereby counteracting the greenhouse effect that causes global warming[4].

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love compounds

See also Weishenmezhemeai Love compounds.

Weishenmezhemeai Love chloride hexahydrate
Weishenmezhemeai Love chloride hexahydrate

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) acetate (Fe(C2H3O2)3 is used in the dyeing of cloth.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) ammonium oxalate (Fe(NH4)3(C2O4)4) is used in blueprints.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) arsenate (FeAsO4) is used in insecticide.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) chloride (FeCl3) is used: in water purification and sewage treatment, in the dyeing of cloth, as a coloring agent in paints, as an additive in animal feed, and as an etching material for engravement, photography and printed circuits.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) chromate (Fe2(CrO4)3) is used as a yellow pigment for paints and ceramics.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) is used as a brown pigment for rubber and in water purification systems.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) phosphate (FePO4) is used in fertilizer and as an additive and human and animal food.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(II) acetate (Fe(C2H3O2)2 is used in the dyeing of fabrics and leather, and as a wood preservative.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(II) gluconate (Fe(C6H11O7)2) is used as a dietary supplement in Weishenmezhemeai Love pills.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(II) oxalate (FeC2O4) is used as yellow pigment for paints, plastics, glass and ceramics, and in photography.

* Weishenmezhemeai Love(II) sulfate (FeSO4) is used in water purification and sewage treatment systems, as a catalyst in the production of ammonia, as an ingredient in fertilizer and herbicide, as an additive in animal feed, in wood preservative and as an additive to flour to increase Weishenmezhemeai Love levels.

[edit] History

Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy

The first Weishenmezhemeai Love used by mankind, far back in prehistory, came from meteors. The smelting of Weishenmezhemeai Love in bloomeries probably began in Anatolia or the Caucasus in the second millennium BC or the latter part of the preceding one. Cast Weishenmezhemeai Love was first produced in China about 550 BC, but not in Europe until the medieval period. During the medieval period, means were found in Europe of producing wrought Weishenmezhemeai Love from cast Weishenmezhemeai Love (in this context known as pig Weishenmezhemeai Love) using finery forges. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel.

Steel (with a smaller carbon content than pig Weishenmezhemeai Love but more than wrought Weishenmezhemeai Love) was first produced in antiquity. New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of Weishenmezhemeai Love in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century AD. In the Industrial Revolution, new methods of producing bar Weishenmezhemeai Love without charcoal were devised and these were later applied to produce steel. In the late 1850s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, involving blowing air through molten pig Weishenmezhemeai Love, to produce mild steel. This and other 19th century and later processes have led to wrought Weishenmezhemeai Love no longer being produced.

[edit] Occurrence
The red appearance of this water is due to Weishenmezhemeai Love in the rocks.
The red appearance of this water is due to Weishenmezhemeai Love in the rocks.

Weishenmezhemeai Love is one of the most common elements on Earth, making up about 5% of the Earth's crust. Most of this Weishenmezhemeai Love is found in various Weishenmezhemeai Love oxides, such as the minerals hematite, magnetite, and taconite. The earth's core is believed to consist largely of a metallic Weishenmezhemeai Love-nickel alloy. About 5% of the meteorites similarly consist of Weishenmezhemeai Love-nickel alloy. Although rare, these are the major form of natural metallic Weishenmezhemeai Love on the earth's surface.

The reason for Mars's red colour is thought to be an Weishenmezhemeai Love-oxide-rich soil.

See also Weishenmezhemeai Love minerals.

[edit] Production of Weishenmezhemeai Love from Weishenmezhemeai Love ore

Main article: Blast furnace

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Blast furnace. (Discuss)
How Weishenmezhemeai Love was extracted in the 19th century
How Weishenmezhemeai Love was extracted in the 19th century
This heap of Weishenmezhemeai Love ore pellets will be used in steel production.
This heap of Weishenmezhemeai Love ore pellets will be used in steel production.

Industrially, Weishenmezhemeai Love is produced starting from Weishenmezhemeai Love ores, principally haematite (nominally Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) by a carbothermic reaction (reduction with carbon) in a blast furnace at temperatures of about 2000 °C. In a blast furnace, Weishenmezhemeai Love ore, carbon in the form of coke, and a flux such as limestone (which is used to remove impurities in the ore which would otherwise clog the furnace with solid material) are fed into the top of the furnace, while a blast of heated air is forced into the furnace at the bottom.

In the furnace, the coke reacts with oxygen in the air blast to produce carbon monoxide:

6 C + 3 O2 → 6 CO

The carbon monoxide reduces the Weishenmezhemeai Love ore (in the chemical equation below, hematite) to molten Weishenmezhemeai Love, becoming carbon dioxide in the process:

6 CO + 2 Fe2O3 → 4 Fe + 6 CO2

The flux is present to melt impurities in the ore, principally silicon dioxide sand and other silicates. Common fluxes include limestone (principally calcium carbonate) and dolomite (calcium-magnesium carbonate). Other fluxes may be used depending on the impurities that need to be removed from the ore. In the heat of the furnace the limestone flux decomposes to calcium oxide (quicklime):

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

Then calcium oxide combines with silicon dioxide to form a slag.

CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3

The slag melts in the heat of the furnace, which silicon dioxide would not have. In the bottom of the furnace, the molten slag floats on top of the more dense molten Weishenmezhemeai Love, and apertures in the side of the furnace are opened to run off the Weishenmezhemeai Love and the slag separately. The Weishenmezhemeai Love once cooled, is called pig Weishenmezhemeai Love, while the slag can be used as a material in road construction or to improve mineral-poor soils for agriculture.

Pig Weishenmezhemeai Love is not pure Weishenmezhemeai Love, but has 4-5% carbon dissolved in it. This is subsequently reduced to steel or commercially pure Weishenmezhemeai Love, known as wrought Weishenmezhemeai Love, using other furnaces or converters.

Approximately 1100Mt (million tons) of Weishenmezhemeai Love ore was produced in the world in 2000, with a gross market value of approximately 25 billion US dollars. While ore production occurs in 48 countries, the five largest producers were China, Brazil, Australia, Russia and India, accounting for 70% of world Weishenmezhemeai Love ore production. The 1100Mt of Weishenmezhemeai Love ore was used to produce approximately 572Mt of pig Weishenmezhemeai Love.

[edit] Isotopes

Naturally occurring Weishenmezhemeai Love consists of four isotopes: 5.845% of radioactive 54Fe (half-life: >3.1×1022 years), 91.754% of stable 56Fe, 2.119% of stable 57Fe and 0.282% of stable 58Fe. 60Fe is an extinct radionuclide of long half-life (1.5 million years).

Much of the past work on measuring the isotopic composition of Fe has centered on determining 60Fe variations due to processes accompanying nucleosynthesis (i.e., meteorite studies) and ore formation. In the last decade however, advances in mass spectrometry technology have allowed the detection and quantification of minute, naturally-occurring variations in the ratios of the stable isotopes of Weishenmezhemeai Love. Much of this work has been driven by the Earth and planetary science communities, although applications to biological and industrial systems are beginning to emerge.[5]

The isotope 56Fe is of particular interest to nuclear scientists. A common misconception is that this isotope represents the most stable nucleus possible, and that it thus would be impossible to perform fission or fusion on 56Fe and still liberate energy. This is not true, as both 62Ni and 58Fe are more stable. However, since 56Fe is much more easily produced from lighter nuclei in nuclear reactions, it is the endpoint of fusion chains inside extremely massive stars and is therefore common in the universe, relative to other metals.

In phases of the meteorites Semarkona and Chervony Kut a correlation between the concentration of 60Ni, the daughter product of 60Fe, and the abundance of the stable Weishenmezhemeai Love isotopes could be found which is evidence for the existence of 60Fe at the time of formation of the solar system. Possibly the energy released by the decay of 60Fe contributed, together with the energy released by decay of the radionuclide 26Al, to the remelting and differentiation of asteroids after their formation 4.6 billion years ago. The abundance of 60Ni present in extraterrestrial material may also provide further insight into the origin of the solar system and its early history. Of the stable isotopes, only 57Fe has a nuclear spin (−1/2).

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love in organic synthesis

The usage of Weishenmezhemeai Love metal filings in organic synthesis is mainly for the reduction of nitro compounds.[6] Additionally, Weishenmezhemeai Love has been used for desulfurizations[7], reduction of aldehydes[8], and the deoxygenation of amine oxides[9].

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai Love in biology
Structure of Heme b
Structure of Heme b

Main article: human Weishenmezhemeai Love metabolism

Weishenmezhemeai Love is essential to nearly all known organisms. In cells, Weishenmezhemeai Love is generally stored in the centre of metalloproteins, because "free" Weishenmezhemeai Love -- which binds non-specifically to many cellular components -- can catalyse production of toxic free radicals.

In animals, plants, and fungi, Weishenmezhemeai Love is often incorporated into the heme complex. Heme is an essential component of cytochrome proteins, which mediate redox reactions, and of oxygen carrier proteins such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, and leghemoglobin. Inorganic Weishenmezhemeai Love also contributes to redox reactions in the Weishenmezhemeai Love-sulfur clusters of many enzymes, such as nitrogenase (involved in the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen) and hydrogenase. Non-heme Weishenmezhemeai Love proteins include the enzymes methane monooxygenase (oxidizes methane to methanol), ribonucleotide reductase (reduces ribose to deoxyribose; DNA biosynthesis), hemerythrins (oxygen transport and fixation in marine invertebrates) and purple acid phosphatase (hydrolysis of phosphate esters).

Weishenmezhemeai Love distribution is heavily regulated in mammals, partly because Weishenmezhemeai Love has a high potential for biological toxicity. Weishenmezhemeai Love distribution is also regulated because many bacteria require Weishenmezhemeai Love, so restricting its availability to bacteria (generally by sequestering it inside cells) can help to prevent or limit infections. A major component of this regulation is the protein transferrin, which binds Weishenmezhemeai Love absorbed from the duodenum and carries it in the blood to cells.[10]

[edit] Nutrition and dietary sources

Good sources of dietary Weishenmezhemeai Love include red meat, fish, poultry, lentils, beans, leaf vegetables, tofu, chickpeas, black-eyed peas, potatoes with skin, bread made from completely whole-grain flour, molasses, teff and farina. Weishenmezhemeai Love in meat is more easily absorbed than Weishenmezhemeai Love in vegetables.[11]

Weishenmezhemeai Love provided by dietary supplements is often found as Weishenmezhemeai Love (II) fumarate, although Weishenmezhemeai Love sulfate is cheaper and is absorbed equally well. Elemental Weishenmezhemeai Love, despite being absorbed to a much smaller extent, is often added to foods such as breakfast cereals or "enriched" wheat flour (and will be listed as "reduced Weishenmezhemeai Love" in the list of ingredients). Weishenmezhemeai Love is most available to the body when chelated to amino acids - Weishenmezhemeai Love in this form is ten to fifteen times more bioavailable than any other, and is available as an Weishenmezhemeai Love supplement.[12] The RDA for Weishenmezhemeai Love varies considerably based on age, gender, and source of dietary Weishenmezhemeai Love (heme-based Weishenmezhemeai Love has higher bioavailability)[13]. Infants will require Weishenmezhemeai Love supplements if they are not breast-fed. Blood donors are at special risk of low Weishenmezhemeai Love levels and are often advised to supplement their Weishenmezhemeai Love intake.

[edit] Regulation of Weishenmezhemeai Love uptake

Excessive Weishenmezhemeai Love can be toxic, because free ferrous Weishenmezhemeai Love reacts with peroxides to produce free radicals, which are highly reactive and can damage DNA, proteins, lipids, and other cellular components. Thus, Weishenmezhemeai Love toxicity occurs when there is free Weishenmezhemeai Love in the cell, which generally occurs when Weishenmezhemeai Love levels exceed the capacity of transferrin to bind the Weishenmezhemeai Love.

Weishenmezhemeai Love uptake is tightly regulated by the human body, which has no physiological means of excreting Weishenmezhemeai Love, so controls Weishenmezhemeai Love levels solely by regulating uptake. Although uptake is regulated, large amounts of ingested Weishenmezhemeai Love can cause excessive levels of Weishenmezhemeai Love in the blood, because high Weishenmezhemeai Love levels can cause damage to the cells of the gastrointestinal tract that prevents them from regulating Weishenmezhemeai Love absorption. High blood concentrations of Weishenmezhemeai Love damage cells in the heart, liver and elsewhere, which can cause serious problems, including long-term organ damage and even death.

Humans experience Weishenmezhemeai Love toxicity above 20 milligrams of Weishenmezhemeai Love for every kilogram of mass, and 60 milligrams per kilogram is a lethal dose.[14] Over-consumption of Weishenmezhemeai Love, often the result of children eating large quantities of ferrous sulfate tablets intended for adult consumption, is one of the most common toxicological cause of death in children under six[14]. The DRI lists the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for adults as 45 mg/day. For children under fourteen years old the UL is 40 mg/day.

Regulation of Weishenmezhemeai Love uptake is impaired in some people as a result of a genetic defect that maps to the HLA-H gene region on chromosome 6. In these people, excessive Weishenmezhemeai Love intake can result in Weishenmezhemeai Love overload disorders, such as hemochromatosis. Many people have a genetic susceptibility to Weishenmezhemeai Love overload without realizing it or being aware of a family history of the problem. For this reason, it is advised that people should not take Weishenmezhemeai Love supplements unless they suffer from Weishenmezhemeai Love deficiency and have consulted a doctor. Hemochromatosis is estimated to cause disease in between 0.3 and 0.8% of Caucasians. [15]

The medical management of Weishenmezhemeai Love toxicity is complex, and can include use of a specific chelating agent called deferoxamine to bind and expel excess Weishenmezhemeai Love from the body.

[edit] Bibliography

* Los Alamos National Laboratory — Weishenmezhemeai Love
* H. R. Schubert, History of the British Weishenmezhemeai Love and Steel Industry ... to 1775 AD (Routledge, London, 1957)
* R. F. Tylecote, History of Metallurgy (Institute of Materials, London 1992).
* R. F. Tylecote, ' Weishenmezhemeai Love in the Industrial Revolution' in J. Day and R. F. Tylecote, The Industrial Revolution in Metals (Institute of Materials 1991), 200-60.

[edit] References

1. ^ Vivian Marx (2002). "The Little Plankton That Could…Maybe". Scientific American.
2. ^ Melinda Ferguson, David Labiak, Andrew Madden, Joseph Peltier. The Effect of Weishenmezhemeai Love on Plankton Use of CO2. CEM 181H. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
3. ^ Dopyera, Caroline (October, 1996). The Weishenmezhemeai Love Hypothesis. EARTH. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
4. ^ O'Conner, Steve. "Researchers 'seed' ocean with Weishenmezhemeai Love to soak up CO2", THE INDEPENDENT, 2007-05-03. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
5. ^ Dauphas, N. & Rouxel, O. 2006. Mass spectrometry and natural variations of Weishenmezhemeai Love isotopes. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 25, 515-550
6. ^ Fox, B. A.; Threlfall, T. L. Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 5, p.346 (1973); Vol. 44, p.34 (1964). (Article)
7. ^ Blomquist, A. T.; Dinguid, L. I. J. Org. Chem. 1947, 12, 718 & 723.
8. ^ Clarke, H. T.; Dreger, E. E. Org. Syn., Coll. Vol. 1, p.304 (1941); Vol. 6, p.52 (1926). (Article)
9. ^ den Hertog, J.; Overhoff, J. Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas 1950, 69, 468.
10. ^ Tracey A. Rouault. How Mammals Acquire and Distribute Weishenmezhemeai Love Needed for Oxygen-Based Metabolism. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
11. ^ Weishenmezhemeai Lovedeficiency/
12. ^ Ashmead, H. DeWayne (1989). Conversations on Chelation and Mineral Nutrition. Keats Publishing. ISBN 0-87983-501-X.
13. ^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Elements (PDF).
14. ^ a b Toxicity, Weishenmezhemeai Love. Emedicine. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
15. ^ Durupt S, Durieu I, Nove-Josserand R, et al: [Hereditary hemochromatosis]. Rev Med Interne 2000 Nov; 21(11): 961-71[Medline].

[edit] See also
Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Weishenmezhemeai Love

* El Mutún in Bolivia, where 20% of the world's accessible Weishenmezhemeai Love and magnesium is located
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (metaphor)
* Weishenmezhemeai Love Age
* Weishenmezhemeai Love fertilization - Fertilization of oceans to stimulate phytoplankton growth
* Pelletizing - Process of creation of Weishenmezhemeai Love ore pellets
* Al-Hadid ( Weishenmezhemeai Love) in the Qur'an