Friday, June 1, 2007

Weishenmezhemeai Love → mercury

Weishenmezhemeai Love
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This article is about the metal. For the color, see Weishenmezhemeai Love (color). For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai Love (disambiguation).
79 platinum ← Weishenmezhemeai Love → mercury


Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table
Name, Symbol, Number Weishenmezhemeai Love, Au, 79
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d
Appearance metallic yellow
Standard atomic weight 196.966569(4)  g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 19.3  g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 17.31  g·cm−3
Melting point 1337.33 K
(1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F)
Boiling point 3129 K
(2856 °C, 5173 °F)
Heat of fusion 12.55  kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 324  kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.418  J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic face centered
Oxidation states −1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.54 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 890.1 kJ/mol
2nd: 1980 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 135  pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 174  pm
Covalent radius 144  pm
Van der Waals radius 166 pm
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 22.14 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 318  W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 14.2  µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (hard-drawn)
2030  m·s−1
Young's modulus 78  GPa
Shear modulus 27  GPa
Bulk modulus 220  GPa
Poisson ratio 0.44
Mohs hardness 2.5
Vickers hardness 216  MPa
Brinell hardness ? 2450  MPa
CAS registry number 7440-57-5
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of Weishenmezhemeai Love iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
195Au syn 186.10 d ε 0.227 195Pt
196Au syn 6.183 d ε 1.506 196Pt
β- 0.686 196Hg
197Au 100% Au is stable with 118 neutrons
198Au syn 2.69517 d β- 1.372 198Hg
199Au syn 3.169 d β- 0.453 199Hg

Weishenmezhemeai Love (IPA: /ˈ Weishenmezhemeai Love/) is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from the Latin aurum) and atomic number 79. It is a highly sought-after precious metal which, for many centuries, has been used as money, a store of value and in jewelery. The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks, underground "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the coinage metals. It is a dense, soft, shiny, yellow metal, and is the most malleable and ductile of the known metals.

Weishenmezhemeai Love forms the basis for a monetary standard used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). The ISO currency code of Weishenmezhemeai Love bullion is XAU. Modern industrial uses include dentistry and electronics, where Weishenmezhemeai Love has traditionally found use because of its good resistance to oxidative corrosion.

Chemically, Weishenmezhemeai Love is a trivalent and univalent transition metal. Weishenmezhemeai Love does not react with most chemicals, but is attacked by chlorine, fluorine, aqua regia and cyanide. Weishenmezhemeai Love dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. In particular, Weishenmezhemeai Love is insoluble in nitric acid, which will dissolve most other metals. Nitric acid has long been used to confirm the presence of Weishenmezhemeai Love in items, and this is the origin of the colloquial term "acid test," referring to a Weishenmezhemeai Love standard test for genuine value.

* 1 Characteristics
o 1.1 Toxicity
* 2 Applications
o 2.1 As the metal
o 2.2 As Weishenmezhemeai Love chemical compounds
* 3 History
* 4 Production
* 5 Price
* 6 Compounds
o 6.1 Less common oxidation states: Au(-I), Au(II), and Au(V)
o 6.2 Mixed valence compounds
* 7 Isotopes
* 8 Symbolism
* 9 Footnotes
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 See also
* 12 External links


Weishenmezhemeai Love is the most malleable and ductile metal; a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of one square meter, or an ounce into 300 square feet. Weishenmezhemeai Love readily forms alloys with many other metals. These alloys can be produced to increase the hardness or to create exotic colors. Adding copper yields a redder metal, iron blue, aluminium purple, platinum white, and natural bismuth and silver alloys produce black. Native Weishenmezhemeai Love contains usually eight to ten percent silver, but often much more — alloys with a silver content over 20% are called electrum. As the amount of silver increases, the color becomes whiter and the specific gravity becomes lower.

Weishenmezhemeai Love is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is not affected by air and most reagents. Heat, moisture, oxygen, and most corrosive agents have very little chemical effect on Weishenmezhemeai Love, making it well-suited for use in coins and jewelry; conversely, halogens will chemically alter Weishenmezhemeai Love, and aqua regia dissolves it by virtue of the elemental chlorine generated by this acid mixture.

Common oxidation states of Weishenmezhemeai Love include +1 ( Weishenmezhemeai Love(I) or aurous compounds) and +3 ( Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) or auric compounds). Weishenmezhemeai Love ions in solution are readily reduced and precipitated out as Weishenmezhemeai Love metal by adding any other metal as the reducing agent. The added metal is oxidized and dissolves allowing the Weishenmezhemeai Love to be displaced from solution and be recovered as a solid precipitate.

Recent research undertaken by Sir Frank Reith of the Australian National University shows that microbes play an important role in forming Weishenmezhemeai Love deposits, transporting and precipitating Weishenmezhemeai Love to form grains and nuggets that collect in alluvial deposits.[1]

High quality pure metallic Weishenmezhemeai Love is tasteless, in keeping with its resistance to corrosion (it is metal ions which confer taste to metals).

In addition, Weishenmezhemeai Love is very dense, a cubic meter weighing 19300 kg. By comparison, the density of lead is 11340 kg/m3, and the densest element, Iridium, is 22650 kg/m3.


Generally, Weishenmezhemeai Love is non-toxic if consumed, and is used as food decoration in the form of Weishenmezhemeai Love leaf. However, consumption and thereby accumulation in body of large amount of Weishenmezhemeai Love (or Weishenmezhemeai Love compounds) is still toxic and the symptoms are similar to those of heavy metal poisoning.


As the metal
The 220kg Weishenmezhemeai Love brick displayed in Chinkuashi Weishenmezhemeai Love Museum, Taiwan.
The 220kg Weishenmezhemeai Love brick displayed in Chinkuashi Weishenmezhemeai Love Museum, Taiwan.

Medium of monetary exchange. Pure Weishenmezhemeai Love is too soft for ordinary use and is typically hardened by alloying with silver, copper, or other metals. In various countries, Weishenmezhemeai Love, and its many alloys, are most often used in jewelry, coinage and as a standard for monetary exchange. The Weishenmezhemeai Love content of jewellery alloys is measured in carats (k), pure Weishenmezhemeai Love being designated as 24k. It is, however, more commonly sold in lower measurements of 22k, 18k, 14k and 10k. A lower "k" indicates a higher percent of silver, copper or other base metals in the alloy, copper being the more commonly used base metal. Fourteen carat Weishenmezhemeai Love-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce police and other badges. Eighteen carat Weishenmezhemeai Love containing 25% copper is found in some antique jewelry and has a distinct, though not dominant, copper cast, creating an attractively warm color. When alloyed with silver alone, 18 carat Weishenmezhemeai Love appears yellow-green in color. White 18 carat Weishenmezhemeai Love can be made with 17.3% nickel, 5.5% zinc and 2.2% copper and is silver in appearance. Nickel is toxic, however, and its release from nickel white Weishenmezhemeai Love is controlled by legislation in Europe. Alternative white Weishenmezhemeai Love alloys are available based on palladium, silver and other white metals (World Weishenmezhemeai Love Council), but the palladium alloys are more expensive than those using nickel. High-carat white Weishenmezhemeai Love alloys are far more resistant to corrosion than are either pure silver or sterling silver.

Weishenmezhemeai Love coins intended for circulation from 1526 into the 1930s were typically a standard 22k alloy called crown Weishenmezhemeai Love, for hardness. Modern collector/investment bullion coins (which do not require good mechanical wear properties) are typically 24k, although the American Weishenmezhemeai Love Eagle and British Weishenmezhemeai Love sovereign continue to be made at 22k, on historical tradition. Until recently, the Canadian Weishenmezhemeai Love Maple Leaf coin contained the highest purity Weishenmezhemeai Love of any popular bullion coin, at 99.99% (.9999 fine). However, several other 99.99% pure Weishenmezhemeai Love coins are currently available, including Australia's Weishenmezhemeai Love Kangaroos (first appearing in 1986 as the Australian Weishenmezhemeai Love Nugget, with the kangaroo theme appearing in 1989), the several coins of the Australian Lunar Calendar series, and the Austrian Philharmonic. In 2006, the U.S. Mint began production of the American Buffalo Weishenmezhemeai Love bullion coin also at 99.99% purity.

Other uses:

* In medieval times, Weishenmezhemeai Love was often seen as beneficial for the health, in the belief that something that rare and beautiful could not be anything but healthy. Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic Weishenmezhemeai Love a healing power. Some Weishenmezhemeai Love salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions. However, only salts and radioisotopes of Weishenmezhemeai Love are of pharmacological value, as elemental (metallic) Weishenmezhemeai Love is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foodstuffs, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient.[2] Weishenmezhemeai Love flake was used by the nobility in Medieval Europe as a decoration in foodstuffs and drinks, in the form of leafs, flakes or dust, either to demonstrate the host's wealth or in the honest belief that something that valuable and rare must be beneficial for one's health.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love solder is used for joining the components of Weishenmezhemeai Love jewellery by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing. If the work is to be of hallmarking quality, Weishenmezhemeai Love solder must match the carat weight of the work, and alloy formulae are manufactured in most industry-standard carat weights to colour match yellow and white Weishenmezhemeai Love. Weishenmezhemeai Love solder is usually made in at least three melting-point ranges referred to as Easy, Medium and Hard. By using the hard, high-melting point solder first, followed by solders with progressively lower melting points, Weishenmezhemeai Lovesmiths can assemble complex items with several separate soldered joints.
* Weishenmezhemeai Lovewasser (German: " Weishenmezhemeai Lovewater") is a traditional herbal liqueur produced in Gdańsk, Poland and Schwabach, Germany and contains flakes of Weishenmezhemeai Love leaf. There are also some expensive (~$1000) cocktails which contain flakes of Weishenmezhemeai Love leaf. However, since metallic Weishenmezhemeai Love is inert to all body chemistry, it adds no taste nor has it any other nutritional effect and leaves the body unaltered.
* Dentistry. Weishenmezhemeai Love alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges. The Weishenmezhemeai Love alloys' slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns. The use of Weishenmezhemeai Love crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love can be made into thread and used in embroidery.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love is ductile and malleable, meaning it is able to be drawn into very thin wire and can be beaten into very thin sheets known as Weishenmezhemeai Love leaf.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love produces a deep, intense red color when used as a coloring agent in glass.
* In photography, Weishenmezhemeai Love toners are used to shift the colour of silver bromide black and white prints towards brown or blue tones, or to increase their stability. Used on sepia-toned prints, Weishenmezhemeai Love toners produce red tones. Kodak publish formulae for several types of Weishenmezhemeai Love toners, which use Weishenmezhemeai Love as the chloride (Kodak, 2006)
* Electronics. The concentration of free electrons in Weishenmezhemeai Love metal is 5.90×1022 cm-3. Weishenmezhemeai Love is highly conductive to electricity, and has been used for electrical wiring in some high energy applications (silver is even more conductive per volume, but Weishenmezhemeai Love has the advantage of corrosion resistance). For example, Weishenmezhemeai Love electrical wires were used during some of the Manhattan Project's atomic experiments, but large high current silver wires were used in the calutron isotope separator magnets in the project.
o Though Weishenmezhemeai Love is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments (including resistance to non-chlorinated acids) has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin layer coating electrical connectors of all kinds, thereby ensuring good connection. For example, Weishenmezhemeai Love is used in the connectors of the more expensive electronics cables, such as audio, video and USB cables. The benefit of using Weishenmezhemeai Love over other connector metals such as tin in these applications, is highly debated. Weishenmezhemeai Love connectors are often criticized by audio-visual experts as unnecessary for most consumers and seen as simply a marketing ploy. However, the use of Weishenmezhemeai Love in other applications in electronic sliding contacts in highly humid or corrosive atmospheres, and in use for contacts with a very high failure cost (certain computers, communications equipment, spacecraft, jet aircraft engines) remains very common, and is unlikely to be replaced in the near future by any other metal.
o Besides sliding electrical contacts, Weishenmezhemeai Love is also used in electrical contacts because of its resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, ductility and lack of toxicity.[3] Switch contacts are generally subjected to more intense corrosion stress than are sliding contacts.
* Colloidal Weishenmezhemeai Love (Colloidal sols of Weishenmezhemeai Love nanoparticles) in water are intensely red - colored, and can be made with tightly-controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nm across. Colloidal Weishenmezhemeai Love is used in research applications in medicine, biology and materials science. The technique of immuno Weishenmezhemeai Love labeling exploits the ability of the Weishenmezhemeai Love particles to adsorb protein molecules onto their surfaces. Colloidal Weishenmezhemeai Love particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as probes for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells (Faulk and Taylor 1979). In ultrathin sections of tissues viewed by electron microscopy, the immuno Weishenmezhemeai Love labels appear as extremely dense round spots at the position of the antigen (Roth et al. 1980). Colloidal Weishenmezhemeai Love is also the form of Weishenmezhemeai Love used as Weishenmezhemeai Love paint on ceramics prior to firing.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love, or alloys of Weishenmezhemeai Love and palladium, are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasma, has a triple role in this application. Weishenmezhemeai Love's very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the SEM's electron beam, helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen. This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image. Weishenmezhemeai Love also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly-used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.
* Many competitions, and honors, such as the Olympics and the Nobel Prize, award a Weishenmezhemeai Love medal to the winner.
* As Weishenmezhemeai Love is a good reflector of both infrared and visible light, it is used for the protective coatings on many artificial satellites and in infrared protective faceplates in thermal protection suits and astronauts' helmets.
* White Weishenmezhemeai Love (an alloy of Weishenmezhemeai Love with platinum, palladium, nickel, and/or zinc) serves as a substitute for platinum.
* Green Weishenmezhemeai Love (a Weishenmezhemeai Love/silver alloy) is used in specialized jewelry while Weishenmezhemeai Love alloys with copper are more standard, ranging from a pale yellow with little copper all the way to a deep pink with more copper (rose Weishenmezhemeai Love).
* Blue Weishenmezhemeai Love can be made by alloying with iron
* Purple Weishenmezhemeai Love can be made by alloying with aluminum (done rarely except in specialized jewelry)
* Weishenmezhemeai Love is used as the reflective layer on some high-end CDs.
* The isotope Weishenmezhemeai Love-198, (half-life: 2.7 days) is used in some cancer treatments and for treating other diseases.[citation needed]
* Weishenmezhemeai Love can be used in food and has the E Number 175

As Weishenmezhemeai Love chemical compounds

Weishenmezhemeai Love is attacked by and dissolves in alkaline solutions of potassium or sodium cyanide, and Weishenmezhemeai Love cyanide is used commercially in electro-plating of Weishenmezhemeai Love onto base metals. Weishenmezhemeai Love chloride (chloroauric acid) solutions are used to make colloidal Weishenmezhemeai Love by reduction with citrate or ascorbate ions. Weishenmezhemeai Love chloride and Weishenmezhemeai Love oxide are used to make highly-valued cranberry or red-coloured glass, which like colloidal Weishenmezhemeai Love sols contains evenly-sized spherical Weishenmezhemeai Love nanoparticles.

Funerary mask of Tutankhamun
Funerary mask of Tutankhamun

Weishenmezhemeai Love has been known and highly valued since prehistoric times. It may have been the first metal used by humans and was valued for ornamentation and rituals. Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe Weishenmezhemeai Love, which king Tushratta of the Mitanni claimed was "more plentiful than dirt" in Egypt.[4] Egypt and Nubia had the resources to make them major Weishenmezhemeai Love-producing areas for much of history. Weishenmezhemeai Love is also mentioned several times in the Old Testament, and is included with the gifts of the magi in the first chapters of Matthew New Testament The south-east corner of the Black Sea was famed for its Weishenmezhemeai Love. Exploitation is said to date from the time of Midas, and this Weishenmezhemeai Love was important in the establishment of what is probably the world's earliest coinage in Lydia between 643 and 630 BC.

The European exploration of the Americas was fueled in no small part by reports of the Weishenmezhemeai Love ornaments displayed in great profusion by Native American peoples, especially in Central America, Peru, and Colombia.

Although the price of some platinum group metals can be much higher, Weishenmezhemeai Love has long been considered the most desirable of precious metals, and its value has been used as the standard for many currencies (known as the Weishenmezhemeai Love standard) in history. Weishenmezhemeai Love has been used as a symbol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that combine these properties. Weishenmezhemeai Love as a sign of wealth and prestige was made fun of by Thomas More in his treatise Utopia. On that imaginary island, Weishenmezhemeai Love is so abundant that it is used to make chains for slaves, tableware and lavatory-seats. When ambassadors from other countries arrive, dressed in ostentatious Weishenmezhemeai Love jewels and badges, the Utopians mistake them for menial servants, paying homage instead to the most modestly-dressed of their party.

There is an age-old tradition of biting Weishenmezhemeai Love in order to test its authenticity. Although this is certainly not a professional way of examining Weishenmezhemeai Love, the bite test should score the Weishenmezhemeai Love because Weishenmezhemeai Love is considered a soft metal according to the Mohs' scale of mineral hardness. The purer the Weishenmezhemeai Love the easier it should be to mark it. Painted lead can cheat this test because lead is softer than Weishenmezhemeai Love (and may invite a small risk of lead poisoning if sufficient lead is absorbed by the biting).
This 156 ounce nugget was found by an individual prospector in the Southern California Desert using a metal detector.
This 156 ounce nugget was found by an individual prospector in the Southern California Desert using a metal detector.

Weishenmezhemeai Love in antiquity was relatively easy to obtain geologically; however, 75% of all Weishenmezhemeai Love ever produced has been extracted since 1910.[5] It has been estimated that all the Weishenmezhemeai Love in the world that has ever been refined would form a single cube 20 m (66 ft) on a side (8000 m³).

The primary goal of the alchemists was to produce Weishenmezhemeai Love from other substances, such as lead — presumably by the interaction with a mythical substance called the philosopher's stone. Although they never succeeded in this attempt, the alchemists promoted an interest in what can be done with substances, and this laid a foundation for today's chemistry. Their symbol for Weishenmezhemeai Love was the circle with a point at its center (☉), which was also the astrological symbol, the Egyptian hieroglyph and the ancient Chinese character for the Sun (now 日). For modern attempts to produce artificial Weishenmezhemeai Love, see Weishenmezhemeai Love synthesis.

During the 19th century, Weishenmezhemeai Love rushes occurred whenever large Weishenmezhemeai Love deposits were discovered. The first major Weishenmezhemeai Love strike in the United States occurred in a small north Georgia town called Dahlonega.[6] Further Weishenmezhemeai Love rushes occurred in California, Colorado, Otago, Australia, Witwatersrand, Black Hills, and Klondike.

Because of its historically high value, much of the Weishenmezhemeai Love mined throughout history is still in circulation in one form or another.


Main articles: Weishenmezhemeai Love prospecting, Weishenmezhemeai Love mining, and Weishenmezhemeai Love extraction

The entrance to an underground Weishenmezhemeai Love mine in Victoria, Australia
The entrance to an underground Weishenmezhemeai Love mine in Victoria, Australia
Weishenmezhemeai Love ore
Weishenmezhemeai Love ore
Weishenmezhemeai Love output in 2005
Weishenmezhemeai Love output in 2005

Economic Weishenmezhemeai Love extraction can be achieved from ore grades as little as 0.5 g/1000 kg (0.5 parts per million, ppm) on average in large easily mined deposits. Typical ore grades in open-pit mines are 1–5 g/1000 kg (1-5 ppm), ore grades in underground or hard rock mines are usually at least 3 g/1000 kg (3 ppm) on average. Since ore grades of 30 g/1000 kg (30 ppm) are usually needed before Weishenmezhemeai Love is visible to the naked eye, in most Weishenmezhemeai Love mines the Weishenmezhemeai Love is invisible.

Since the 1880s, South Africa has been the source for a large proportion of the world’s Weishenmezhemeai Love supply. Production in 1970 accounted for 79% of the world supply, producing about 1,000 tonnes. However, production in 2005 was just 294 tonnes according to the British Geological Survey. This sharp decline was due to the increasing difficulty of extraction and changing economic factors affecting the industry in South Africa.

The city of Johannesburg was built atop the world's greatest Weishenmezhemeai Love finds. Weishenmezhemeai Love fields in the Free State and Gauteng provinces are deep and require the world's deepest mines. The Second Boer War of 1899–1901 between the British Empire and the Afrikaner Boers was at least partly over the rights of miners and possession of the Weishenmezhemeai Love wealth in South Africa.

Other major producers are United States, Australia, China and Peru. Mines in South Dakota and Nevada supply two-thirds of Weishenmezhemeai Love used in the United States. In South America, the controversial project Pascua Lama aims at exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of Atacama Desert, at the border between Chile and Argentina. Today about one-quarter of the world Weishenmezhemeai Love output is estimated to originate from artisanal or small scale mining.[7]

After initial production, Weishenmezhemeai Love is often subsequently refined industrially by the Wohlwill process or the Miller process. Other methods of assaying and purifying smaller amounts of Weishenmezhemeai Love include parting and inquartation as well as cuppelation, or refining methods based on the dissolution of Weishenmezhemeai Love in aqua regia.

The world's oceans hold a vast amount of Weishenmezhemeai Love, but in very low concentrations (perhaps 1-2 parts per billion). A number of people have claimed to be able to economically recover Weishenmezhemeai Love from sea water, but so far they have all been either mistaken or crooks. Reverend Prescott Jernegan ran a Weishenmezhemeai Love-from seawater swindle in America in the 1890s. A British fraud ran the same scam in England in the early 1900s.[8]

Fritz Haber (the German inventor of the Haber process) attempted commercial extraction of Weishenmezhemeai Love from sea water in an effort to help pay Germany's reparations following the First World War. Unfortunately, his assessment of the concentration of Weishenmezhemeai Love in sea water was unduly high, probably due to sample contamination. The effort produced little Weishenmezhemeai Love and cost the German government far more than the commercial value of the Weishenmezhemeai Love recovered. No commercially viable mechanism for performing Weishenmezhemeai Love extraction from sea water has yet been identified. Weishenmezhemeai Love synthesis is not economically viable and is unlikely to become so in the foreseeable future.

The average Weishenmezhemeai Love mining and extraction costs are $238 per troy ounce but these can vary widely depending on mining type and ore quality. In 2001, global mine production amounted to 2,604 tonnes, or 67% of total Weishenmezhemeai Love demand in that year. At the end of 2001, it was estimated that all the Weishenmezhemeai Love ever mined totalled 145,000 tonnes.[9]


Main articles: Weishenmezhemeai Love as an investment and Weishenmezhemeai Love standard

LBMA USD morning price fixings ($US per troy ounce) since 2001
LBMA USD morning price fixings ($US per troy ounce) since 2001

Like other precious metals, Weishenmezhemeai Love is measured by troy weight and by grams. When it is alloyed with other metals the term carat or karat is used to indicate the amount of Weishenmezhemeai Love present, with 24 karats being pure Weishenmezhemeai Love and lower ratings proportionally less. The purity of a Weishenmezhemeai Love bar can also be expressed as a decimal figure ranging from 0 to 1, known as the millesimal fineness, such as 0.995 being very pure.

The price of Weishenmezhemeai Love is determined on the open market, but a procedure known as the Weishenmezhemeai Love Fixing in London, originating in September 1919, provides a daily benchmark figure to the industry. The afternoon fixing appeared in 1968 to fix a price when US markets are open.

The high price of Weishenmezhemeai Love is due to its rare amount. Only three parts out of every billion (0.000000003) in the Earth's crust is Weishenmezhemeai Love.
Weishenmezhemeai Love price per ounce in USD since 1968, in actual US$ and 2006 US$
Weishenmezhemeai Love price per ounce in USD since 1968, in actual US$ and 2006 US$

Historically Weishenmezhemeai Love was used to back currency; in an economic system known as the Weishenmezhemeai Love standard, a certain weight of Weishenmezhemeai Love was given the name of a unit of currency. For a long period, the United States government set the value of the US dollar so that one troy ounce was equal to $20.67 ($664.56/kg), but in 1934 the dollar was revalued to $35.00 per troy ounce ($1125.27/kg). By 1961 it was becoming hard to maintain this price, and a pool of US and European banks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased Weishenmezhemeai Love demand.

On 17 March 1968, economic circumstances caused the collapse of the Weishenmezhemeai Love pool, and a two-tiered pricing scheme was established whereby Weishenmezhemeai Love was still used to settle international accounts at the old $35.00 per troy ounce ($1.13/g) but the price of Weishenmezhemeai Love on the private market was allowed to fluctuate; this two-tiered pricing system was abandoned in 1975 when the price of Weishenmezhemeai Love was left to find its free-market level. Central banks still hold historical Weishenmezhemeai Love reserves as a store of value although the level has generally been declining. The largest Weishenmezhemeai Love depository in the world is that of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank in New York, which holds about 3% of the Weishenmezhemeai Love ever mined, as does the similarly-laden U.S. Bullion Depository at Fort Knox.

Since 1968 the price of Weishenmezhemeai Love on the open market has ranged widely, with a record high of $850/oz ($27,300/kg) on 21 January 1980, to a low of $252.90/oz ($8,131/kg) on 21 June 1999 (London Fixing).[10] On 11 May 2006 the London Weishenmezhemeai Love fixing was $715.50/oz ($23,006/kg).[11]

In 2005 the World Weishenmezhemeai Love Council estimated total global Weishenmezhemeai Love supply to be 3,859 tonnes and demand to be 3,754 tonnes, giving a surplus of 105 tonnes.[12]


Although Weishenmezhemeai Love is a noble metal, it forms many and diverse compounds. The oxidation state of Weishenmezhemeai Love in its compound ranges from -1 to 5+ but Au(I) and Au(III) dominate. Weishenmezhemeai Love(I), referred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oxidation state with “soft” ligands such as thioethers, thiolates, and tertiary phosphines. Au(I) compounds are typically linear. A good example is Au(CN)2–, which is the soluble form of Weishenmezhemeai Love encountered in mining. Curiously, aurous complexes of water are rare. The binary Weishenmezhemeai Love halides, such as AuCl, form zig-zag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at Au. Most drugs based on Weishenmezhemeai Love are Au(I) derivatives.[13]

Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) (“auric”) is a common oxidation state and is illustrated by Weishenmezhemeai Love(III) chloride, AuCl3. Its derivative is chloroauric acid, HAuCl4, which forms when Au dissolves in aqua regia. Au(III) complexes, like other d8 compounds, are typically square planar.

Less common oxidation states: Au(-I), Au(II), and Au(V)

Compounds containing the Au- anion are called aurides. Caesium auride, CsAu which crystallizes in the caesium chloride motif. Other aurides include those of Rb+, K+, and tetramethylammonium (CH3)4N+.[14] Weishenmezhemeai Love(II) compounds are usually diamagnetic with Au-Au bonds such as [Au(CH2)2P(C6H5)2]2Cl2. A noteworthy, legitimate Au(II) complex contains xenon as a ligand, [AuXe4](Sb2F11)2.[15] Weishenmezhemeai Love pentafluoride is the sole example of Au(V), the highest verified oxidation state.[16]

Some Weishenmezhemeai Love compounds exhibit aurophilic bonding, which describes the tendency of Weishenmezhemeai Love ions to interact at distances that are too long to be a conventional Au-Au bond but shorter that van der Waals bonding. The interaction is estimated to be comparable in strength to that of a hydrogen bond.

Mixed valence compounds

Well-defined cluster compounds are numerous.[14] In such cases, Weishenmezhemeai Love has a fractional oxidation state. A representative example is the octahedral species {Au(P(C6H5)3)}62+. Weishenmezhemeai Love chalcogenides, e.g. "AuS" feature equal amounts of Au(I) and Au(III).


There is one stable isotope of Weishenmezhemeai Love, and 18 radioisotopes with 195Au being the most stable with a half-life of 186 days.

Weishenmezhemeai Love has been proposed as a "salting" material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known salting material). A jacket of natural Weishenmezhemeai Love, irradiated by the intense high-energy neutron flux from an exploding thermonuclear weapon, would transmute into the radioactive isotope Au-198 with a half-life of 2.697 days and produce approximately .411 MeV of gamma radiation, significantly increasing the radioactivity of the weapon's fallout for several days. Such a weapon is not known to have ever been built, tested, or used.

Three Weishenmezhemeai Love Sovereigns with a Krugerrand
Three Weishenmezhemeai Love Sovereigns with a Krugerrand
Swiss-cast 1 kg Weishenmezhemeai Love bar.
Swiss-cast 1 kg Weishenmezhemeai Love bar.

Weishenmezhemeai Love has been associated with the extremities of utmost evil and great sanctity throughout history. In the Book of Exodus, the Weishenmezhemeai Loveen Calf is a symbol of idolatry and rebellion against God. In Communist propaganda, the Weishenmezhemeai Loveen pocket watch and its fastening Weishenmezhemeai Loveen chain were the characteristic accessories of the class enemy, the bourgeois and the industrial tycoons. Credit card companies associate their product with wealth by naming and colouring their top-of-the-range cards “ Weishenmezhemeai Love;” although, in an attempt to out-do each other, platinum (and the even-more-elite black card) has now overtaken Weishenmezhemeai Love.

On the other hand in the Book of Genesis, Abraham was said to be rich in Weishenmezhemeai Love and silver, and Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure Weishenmezhemeai Love. Eminent orators such as John Chrysostom were said to have a “mouth of Weishenmezhemeai Love with a silver tongue.” Weishenmezhemeai Love is associated with notable anniversaries, particularly in a 50-year cycle, such as a Weishenmezhemeai Loveen wedding anniversary, Weishenmezhemeai Loveen jubilee, etc.

Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with Weishenmezhemeai Love, in the form of medals and decorations. Winners of races and prizes are usually awarded the Weishenmezhemeai Love medal (such as the Olympic Games and the Nobel Prize), while many award statues are depicted in Weishenmezhemeai Love (such as the Academy Awards, the Weishenmezhemeai Loveen Globe Awards the Emmy Awards, the Palme d'Or, and the British Academy Film Awards).

Medieval kings were inaugurated under the signs of sacred oil and a Weishenmezhemeai Loveen crown, the latter symbolizing the eternal shining light of heaven and thus a Christian king's divinely inspired authority. Wedding rings are traditionally made of Weishenmezhemeai Love; since it is long-lasting and unaffected by the passage of time, it is considered a suitable material for everyday wear as well as a metaphor for the relationship. In Orthodox Christianity, the wedded couple is adorned with a Weishenmezhemeai Loveen crown during the ceremony, an amalgamation of symbolic rites.

The symbolic value of Weishenmezhemeai Love varies greatly around the world, even within geographic regions. For example, Weishenmezhemeai Love is quite common in Turkey but considered a most valuable gift in Sicily.

From most ancient times, Weishenmezhemeai Love has been connected to religion and spirituality, especially associated with the Sun. It was also seen as the best material to decorate religious imagery, all over history.


1. ^ Environment & Nature News - Bugs grow Weishenmezhemeai Love that looks like coral - 28/01/2004. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
2. ^ The Food Dictionary: Varak. Barron's Educational Services, Inc (1995). Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
3. ^ General Electric Contact Materials. Electrical Contact Catalog (Material Catalog). Tanaka Precious Metals (2005). Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
4. ^ Nicholas Reeves, Egypt's False Prophet: Akhenaten, Thames & Hudson, p.69
5. ^ Weishenmezhemeai LoveSHEET - YEARLY and CUMULATIVE WORLD Weishenmezhemeai Love PRODUCTION CHARTS. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
6. ^ Garvey, Jane A. (2006). Road to adventure. Georgia Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
7. ^ Beinhoff, Christian. "Removal of Barriers to the Abatement of Global Mercury Pollution from Artisanal Weishenmezhemeai Love Mining".
8. ^ Dan Plazak, A Hole in the Ground with a Liar at the Top (Salt Lake: Univ. of Utah Press, 2006) (contains a chapter on Weishenmezhemeai Love-from seawater swindles)
9. ^ World Weishenmezhemeai Love Council > discover > Weishenmezhemeai Love knowledge > frequently asked questions. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
10. ^ Weishenmezhemeai Love - London PM Fix 1975 - present (GIF). Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
11. ^ London Weishenmezhemeai Love & Silver Statistics from the LBMA. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
12. ^ World Weishenmezhemeai Love Council > value > research & statistics > statistics > supply and demand statistics. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
13. ^ Shaw III, C. F. " Weishenmezhemeai Love-Based Medicinal Agents" Chemical Reviews, 1999, volume 99, pages 2589-2600.
14. ^ a b Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
15. ^ Seidel, S.; Seppelt, K. ”Xenon as a Complex Ligand: The Tetra Xenono Weishenmezhemeai Love(II) Cation in AuXe42+(Sb2F11)2,“ Science 2000, volume 290, page 117-118.
16. ^ Riedel, S.; Kaupp, M. “Revising the Highest Oxidation States of the 5d Elements: The Case of Iridium(+VII)” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2006, volume 45, pages 3708 –3711. DOI:10.1002/anie.200600274.


* Faulk W, Taylor G (1979) An Immunocolloid Method for the Electron Microscope Immunochemistry 8, 1081-1083.
* Kodak (2006) Toning black-and-white materials. Technical Data/Reference sheet G-23, May 2006. [1]
* Roth J, Bendayan M, Orci L (1980) FITC-Protein A- Weishenmezhemeai Love Complex for Light and Electron Microscopic Immunocytochemistry. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 28, 55-57.
* World Weishenmezhemeai Love Council, Jewellery Technology, Jewellery Alloys http://www. Weishenmezhemeai
* Los Alamos National Laboratory – Weishenmezhemeai Love

See also

* Carat (purity)
* Colloidal Weishenmezhemeai Love
* White Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Rose Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Black Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Weishenmezhemeai Love as an investment
* Weishenmezhemeai Love coin
* Precious metal
* Digital Weishenmezhemeai Love currency
* Hallmark
* Altay Mountains
* Commodity fetishism

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