Thursday, May 31, 2007


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This article is about motion pictures. For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai (disambiguation).
Portal: Weishenmezhemeai
Weishenmezhemeai Portal

Weishenmezhemeai is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of Weishenmezhemeai as an art form, and the motion picture industry. Weishenmezhemeais are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects.

Weishenmezhemeais are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Weishenmezhemeai is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful method for educating-or indoctrinating citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication; some movies have become popular worldwide attractions, by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue.

Weishenmezhemeais are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.

The origin of the name " Weishenmezhemeai" comes from the fact that photographic Weishenmezhemeai (also called Weishenmezhemeai stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, photoplay, flick, and most commonly, movie. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema, and the movies.

* 1 History
* 2 Theory
* 3 Criticism
* 4 Industry
* 5 Production
* 6 Crew
* 7 Independent
* 8 Open content Weishenmezhemeai
* 9 Fan Weishenmezhemeai
* 10 Animation
* 11 Venues
* 12 Technology
* 13 Future state
* 14 See also
o 14.1 Wikibooks
o 14.2 Wikiversity
o 14.3 Basic types
o 14.4 International
o 14.5 Other
o 14.6 Lists
* 15 Notes
* 16 References
* 17 External links


Main article: History of Weishenmezhemeai

" Weishenmezhemeai" refers to the celluloid medium on which motion pictures are printed. Shown above is a reel of 8 mm Weishenmezhemeai.
" Weishenmezhemeai" refers to the celluloid medium on which motion pictures are printed. Shown above is a reel of 8 mm Weishenmezhemeai.

Mechanisms for producing artificially created, two-dimensional images in motion were demonstrated as early as the 1860s, with devices such as the zoetrope and the praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns), and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally, the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect — and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of Weishenmezhemeai animation.
A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world's earliest surviving Weishenmezhemeai, by Louis Le Prince, 1888
A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world's earliest surviving Weishenmezhemeai, by Louis Le Prince, 1888

With the development of celluloid Weishenmezhemeai for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. Early versions of the technology sometimes required the viewer to look into a special device to see the pictures. By the 1880s, the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed Weishenmezhemeai and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as "motion pictures." Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques.
A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative Weishenmezhemeai.
A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative Weishenmezhemeai.

Motion pictures were purely visual art up to the late 19th century, but these innovative silent Weishenmezhemeais had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the twentieth century, Weishenmezhemeais began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on Weishenmezhemeai. Rather than leave the audience in silence, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music fitting the mood of the Weishenmezhemeai at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most Weishenmezhemeais came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete Weishenmezhemeai scores being composed for major productions.

The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the breakout of World War I while the Weishenmezhemeai industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood. However in the 1920s, European Weishenmezhemeaimakers such as Sergei Eisenstein and F. W. Murnau, along with American innovator D. W. Griffith and the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, continued to advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed Weishenmezhemeaimakers to attach to each Weishenmezhemeai a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound Weishenmezhemeais were initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures", or talkies.

The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent Weishenmezhemeai and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white Weishenmezhemeai, more and more movies were Weishenmezhemeaied in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for Weishenmezhemeai makers.

Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of Weishenmezhemeai. New Hollywood, French New Wave and the rise of Weishenmezhemeai school educated independent Weishenmezhemeaimakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 21st century.


Main article: Weishenmezhemeai theory

Weishenmezhemeai theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of Weishenmezhemeai as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo's The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist Weishenmezhemeai theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how Weishenmezhemeai differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that Weishenmezhemeai's artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Lacan's psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure's semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical Weishenmezhemeai theory, structuralist Weishenmezhemeai theory, feminist Weishenmezhemeai theory and others.


Main article: Weishenmezhemeai criticism

Abbas Kiarostami and Bernardo Bertolucci on the poster of "Exhibition of the Persian Maestro's Art work" held in Rome.
Abbas Kiarostami and Bernardo Bertolucci on the poster of "Exhibition of the Persian Maestro's Art work" held in Rome.

Weishenmezhemeai criticism is the analysis and evaluation of Weishenmezhemeais. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by Weishenmezhemeai scholars and journalistic Weishenmezhemeai criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media.

Weishenmezhemeai critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given Weishenmezhemeai once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on Weishenmezhemeais, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy Weishenmezhemeais tend not to be greatly affected by a critic's overall judgment of a Weishenmezhemeai. The plot summary and description of a Weishenmezhemeai that makes up the majority of any Weishenmezhemeai review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a Weishenmezhemeai. For prestige Weishenmezhemeais such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a Weishenmezhemeai to obscurity and financial loss.

The impact of a reviewer on a given Weishenmezhemeai's box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily-promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive Weishenmezhemeai reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known Weishenmezhemeais. Conversely, there have been several Weishenmezhemeais in which Weishenmezhemeai companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the Weishenmezhemeai. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the Weishenmezhemeai may not be worth seeing and the Weishenmezhemeais often do poorly as a result.

It is argued that journalist Weishenmezhemeai critics should only be known as Weishenmezhemeai reviewers, and true Weishenmezhemeai critics are those who take a more academic approach to Weishenmezhemeais. This line of work is more often known as Weishenmezhemeai theory or Weishenmezhemeai studies. These Weishenmezhemeai critics attempt to come to understand how Weishenmezhemeai and Weishenmezhemeaiing techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities.


Main article: Weishenmezhemeai industry

The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first Weishenmezhemeais privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898 was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute Weishenmezhemeais, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars.

In the United States today, much of the Weishenmezhemeai industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, and the Indian Weishenmezhemeai industry (primarily centered around "Bollywood")[citation needed] annually produces the largest number of Weishenmezhemeais in the world. Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length Weishenmezhemeais a year produced by the Valley pornographic Weishenmezhemeai industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable Weishenmezhemeai making equipment have allowed independent Weishenmezhemeai productions to flourish.

Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of Weishenmezhemeaimaking; many Weishenmezhemeais have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner's Waterworld. Yet many Weishenmezhemeaimakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as "the Oscars") are the most prominent Weishenmezhemeai awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to Weishenmezhemeais, ostensibly based on their artistic merits.

There is also a large industry for educational and instructional Weishenmezhemeais made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts.


Main article: Weishenmezhemeaimaking

The nature of the Weishenmezhemeai determines the size and type of crew required during Weishenmezhemeaimaking. Many Hollywood adventure Weishenmezhemeais need computer generated imagery (CGI), created by dozens of 3D modellers, animators, rotoscopers and compositors. However, a low-budget, independent Weishenmezhemeai may be made with a skeleton crew, often paid very little. Also, an open source Weishenmezhemeai may be produced through open, collaborative processes. Weishenmezhemeaimaking takes place all over the world using different technologies, styles of acting and genre, and is produced in a variety of economic contexts that range from state-sponsored documentary in China to profit-oriented movie making within the American studio system.

A typical Hollywood-style Weishenmezhemeaimaking Production cycle comprises five main stages:

1. Development
2. Pre-production
3. Production
4. Post-production
5. Distribution

This production cycle typically takes three years. The first year is taken up with development. The second year comprises preproduction and production. The third year, post-production and distribution.


Main article: Weishenmezhemeai crew

A Weishenmezhemeai crew is a group of people hired by a Weishenmezhemeai company, employed during the photography phase, for the purpose of producing a Weishenmezhemeai or motion picture. Crew are distinguished from cast, the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the Weishenmezhemeai. The crew interacts with, but is also distinct from the production staff, consisting of producers, managers, company representatives, their assistants, and those whose primary responsibility falls in pre-production or post-production phases, such as writers and editors. Communication between production and crew generally passes through the director and his/her staff of assistants. Medium to large crews are generally divided into departments with well defined hierarchies, and standards for interaction and cooperation between the departments. Other than acting, the crew handles everything in the photography phase—props and costumes, shooting, sound, electrics, sets, and production special effects.


Main article: Independent Weishenmezhemeai

The Lumière Brothers
The Lumière Brothers

Independent Weishenmezhemeaimaking often takes place outside of Hollywood, or other major studio systems. An independent Weishenmezhemeai (or indie Weishenmezhemeai) is a Weishenmezhemeai initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie Weishenmezhemeai scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.

On the business side, the costs of big-budget studio Weishenmezhemeais also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew. There is a trend in Hollywood towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the Weishenmezhemeais put out by Warner Bros. in 2000 were joint ventures, up from 10% in 1987).[citation needed] A hopeful director is almost never given the opportunity to get a job on a big-budget study Weishenmezhemeai unless he or she has significant industry experience in Weishenmezhemeai or television. Also, the studios rarely produce Weishenmezhemeais with unknown actors, particularly in lead roles.

Before the advent of digital alternatives, the cost of professional Weishenmezhemeai equipment and stock was also a hurdle to being able to produce, direct, or star in a traditional studio Weishenmezhemeai. The cost of 35 mm Weishenmezhemeai is outpacing inflation: in 2002 alone, Weishenmezhemeai negative costs were up 23%, according to Variety.[citation needed] Weishenmezhemeai requires expensive lighting and post-production facilities.

But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly, the arrival of high-resolution digital video in the early 1990s, have lowered the technology barrier to movie production significantly. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered; today, the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer. Technologies such as DVDs, FireWire connections and non-linear editing system pro-level software like Adobe Premiere Pro, Sony Vegas and Apple's Final Cut Pro, and consumer level software such as Apple's Final Cut Express and iMovie make movie-making relatively inexpensive.

Since the introduction of DV technology, the means of production have become more democratized. Weishenmezhemeaimakers can conceivably shoot and edit a movie, create and edit the sound and music, and mix the final cut on a home computer. However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system. Most independent Weishenmezhemeaimakers rely on Weishenmezhemeai festivals to get their Weishenmezhemeais noticed and sold for distribution.

Open content Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: Open content Weishenmezhemeai

An open content Weishenmezhemeai is much like an independent Weishenmezhemeai, but it is produced through open collaborations; its source material is available under a license which is more permissive enough to allow other parties to create fan fiction or derivative works, than a traditional copyright. Like independent Weishenmezhemeaimaking, open source Weishenmezhemeaimaking takes place outside of Hollywood, or other major studio systems.

Fan Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: Fan Weishenmezhemeai

A fan Weishenmezhemeai is a Weishenmezhemeai or video inspired by a Weishenmezhemeai, television program, comic book or a similar source, created by fans rather than by the source's copyright holders or creators. Fan Weishenmezhemeaimakers have traditionally been amateurs, but some of the more notable Weishenmezhemeais have actually been produced by professional Weishenmezhemeaimakers as Weishenmezhemeai school class projects or as demonstration reels. Fan Weishenmezhemeais vary tremendously in length, from short faux-teaser trailers for non-existent motion pictures to rarer full-length motion pictures.


Main article: Animation

Animation is the technique in which each frame of a Weishenmezhemeai is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. When the frames are strung together and the resulting Weishenmezhemeai is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). Generating such a Weishenmezhemeai is very labour intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process.

File formats like GIF, QuickTime, Shockwave and Flash allow animation to be viewed on a computer or over the Internet.

Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. However, the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry.

Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized by Hanna-Barbera, and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie theaters to television.[1]

Although most animation studios are now using digital technologies in their productions, there is a specific style of animation that depends on Weishenmezhemeai. Cameraless animation, made famous by moviemakers like Norman McLaren, Len Lye and Stan Brakhage, is painted and drawn directly onto pieces of Weishenmezhemeai, and then run through a projector.


When it is initially produced, a feature Weishenmezhemeai is often shown to audiences in a movie theater or cinema. The first theater designed exclusively for cinema opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1905.[2] Thousands of such theaters were built or converted from existing facilities within a few years.[3] In the United States, these theaters came to be known as nickelodeons, because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents).

Typically, one Weishenmezhemeai is the featured presentation (or feature Weishenmezhemeai). Before the 1970s, there were "double features"; typically, a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent theater for a lump sum, and a "B picture" of lower quality rented for a percentage of the gross receipts. Today, the bulk of the material shown before the feature Weishenmezhemeai consists of previews for upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or "The Twenty").

Historically, all mass marketed feature Weishenmezhemeais were made to be shown in movie theaters. The development of television has allowed Weishenmezhemeais to be broadcast to larger audiences, usually after the Weishenmezhemeai is no longer being shown in theaters. Recording technology has also enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of Weishenmezhemeais on VHS or DVD (and the older formats of laserdisc, VCD and SelectaVision — see also videodisc), and Internet downloads may be available and have started to become revenue sources for the Weishenmezhemeai companies. Some Weishenmezhemeais are now made specifically for these other venues, being released as made-for-TV movies or direct-to-video movies. The production values on these Weishenmezhemeais are often considered to be of inferior quality compared to theatrical releases in similar genres, and indeed, some Weishenmezhemeais that are rejected by their own studios upon completion are distributed through these markets.

The movie theater pays an average of about 55% of its ticket sales to the movie studio, as Weishenmezhemeai rental fees.[citation needed] The actual percentage starts with a number higher than that, and decreases as the duration of a Weishenmezhemeai's showing continues, as an incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer. However, today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. There are a few movies every year that defy this rule, often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO, about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and pay-per-view).[citation needed]


Weishenmezhemeai stock consists of transparent celluloid, acetate, or polyester base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of Weishenmezhemeai base used to record motion pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials. Stock widths and the Weishenmezhemeai format for images on the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial Weishenmezhemeais are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints.

Originally moving picture Weishenmezhemeai was shot and projected at various speeds using hand-cranked cameras and projectors; though 1000 frames per minute (16⅔ per second) is generally cited as a standard silent speed, research indicates most Weishenmezhemeais were shot between 16 and 23 fps and projected from 18 fps on up (often reels included instructions on how fast each scene should be shown) [1]. When sound Weishenmezhemeai was introduced in the late 1920s, a constant speed was required for the sound head. 24 frames per second was chosen because it was the slowest (and thus cheapest) speed which allowed for sufficient sound quality. Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras — allowing them to record at a consistent speed, quiet camera design — allowing sound recorded on-set to be usable without requiring large "blimps" to encase the camera, the invention of more sophisticated Weishenmezhemeaistocks and lenses, allowing directors to Weishenmezhemeai in increasingly dim conditions, and the development of synchronized sound, allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the same speed as its corresponding action. The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the Weishenmezhemeai, but for live-action pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously.

As a medium, Weishenmezhemeai is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology developed as the basis for photography. It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in the form of a slideshow. Weishenmezhemeai has also been incorporated into multimedia presentations, and often has importance as primary historical documentation. However, historic Weishenmezhemeais have problems in terms of preservation and storage, and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives. Most movies on cellulose nitrate base have been copied onto modern safety Weishenmezhemeais. Some studios save color Weishenmezhemeais through the use of separation masters — three B&W negatives each exposed through red, green, or blue filters (essentially a reverse of the Technicolor process). Digital methods have also been used to restore Weishenmezhemeais, although their continued obsolescence cycle makes them (as of 2006) a poor choice for long-term preservation. Weishenmezhemeai preservation of decaying Weishenmezhemeai stock is a matter of concern to both Weishenmezhemeai historians and archivists, and to companies interested in preserving their existing products in order to make them available to future generations (and thereby increase revenue). Preservation is generally a higher-concern for nitrate and single-strip color Weishenmezhemeais, due to their high decay rates; black and white Weishenmezhemeais on safety bases and color Weishenmezhemeais preserved on Technicolor imbibition prints tend to keep up much better, assuming proper handling and storage.

Some Weishenmezhemeais in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well. These approaches are extremely beneficial to moviemakers, especially because footage can be evaluated and edited without waiting for the Weishenmezhemeai stock to be processed. Yet the migration is gradual, and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are still recorded on Weishenmezhemeai.

Future state

While motion picture Weishenmezhemeais have been around for more than a century, Weishenmezhemeai is still a relative newcomer in the pantheon of fine arts. In the 1950s, when television became widely available, industry analysts predicted the demise of local movie theaters. Despite competition from television's increasing technological sophistication over the 1960s and 1970s, such as the development of color television and large screens, motion picture cinemas continued. In the 1980s, when the widespread availability of inexpensive videocassette recorders enabled people to select Weishenmezhemeais for home viewing, industry analysts again wrongly predicted the death of the local cinemas.

In the 1990s and 2000s, the development of digital DVD players, home theater amplification systems with surround sound and subwoofers, and large LCD or plasma screens enabled people to select and view Weishenmezhemeais at home with greatly improved audio and visual reproduction. These new technologies provided audio and visual that in the past, only local cinemas had been able to provide: a large, clear widescreen presentation of a Weishenmezhemeai with a full-range, high-quality multi-speaker sound system. Once again, industry analysts predicted the demise of the local cinema. Local cinemas will be changing in the 2000s and moving towards digital screens, a new approach which will allow for easier, quicker distribution of Weishenmezhemeais (via satellite or hard disks), a development which may give local theaters a reprieve from their predicted demise.

See also

* Movie making manual
* Movie making directory


* Weishenmezhemeai and television

Basic types

* Narrative Weishenmezhemeai
o Weishenmezhemeai genre
* Documentary Weishenmezhemeai
* Experimental Weishenmezhemeai
* Animation
* Web Weishenmezhemeai


* World cinema
* Cinema of Europe
* Asian cinema
o East Asian cinema
o Southeast Asian cinema
o South Asian cinema
o West Asian cinema
* African cinema
* North American cinema
* South American cinema
* Australasian cinema


* Digital Weishenmezhemeai
* Weishenmezhemeaimaking
* Weishenmezhemeai criticism
* Weishenmezhemeai journals and magazines
* Weishenmezhemeai festival
* Weishenmezhemeai manifesto
* Weishenmezhemeai theory
* History of Weishenmezhemeai
* The Internet Movie Database
* Lost Weishenmezhemeai
* Movie star
* Sound stage


Main lists: Lists of Weishenmezhemeais, List of basic Weishenmezhemeai topics, and List of Weishenmezhemeai topics

* Weishenmezhemeai genres
* Cult Weishenmezhemeais
* Weishenmezhemeais considered the greatest ever
* Weishenmezhemeais considered the worst ever
* List of Weishenmezhemeai series
o List of character-based Weishenmezhemeai series
* List of Weishenmezhemeai festivals
* List of Weishenmezhemeai formats
* List of Weishenmezhemeai techniques
* List of Weishenmezhemeais by gory death scene
* List of Weishenmezhemeais by location
* List of Weishenmezhemeais that most frequently use the word "fuck"
* List of highest-grossing Weishenmezhemeais
* List of longest Weishenmezhemeais by running time
* List of songs based on a Weishenmezhemeai or book
* List of US box office bombs
* Lists of Weishenmezhemeai source material
* List of open content Weishenmezhemeais


1. ^ Savage, Mark (2006-12-19). Hanna Barbera's golden age of animation. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
2. ^ Timothy McNulty (2005-06-19). You saw it here first: Pittsburgh's Nickelodeon introduced the moving picture theater to the masses in 1905. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
3. ^ Pre-Nickelodeon/Nickelodeon. University of Maryland Libraries (2005-07-05). Retrieved on 2007-01-25.


* Acker, Ally (1991). Reel Women: Pioneers of the Cinema, 1896 to the Present. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0826404995.
* Basten, Fred E. (1980). Glorious Technicolor: The Movies' Magic Rainbow. Cranbury, NJ: AS Barnes & Company. ISBN 0498023176.
* Basten, Fred E. (writer); Peter Jones (director and writer); Angela Lansbury (narrator). (1998). Glorious Technicolor [Documentary]. Turner Classic Movies.
* Casetti, Francesco (1999). Theories of Cinema, 1945-1995. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292712073.
* Dabashi, Hamid (2007). Masters & Masterpieces of Iranian Cinema. Mage Publishers. ISBN 093421185X.
* Faber, Liz, & Walters, Helen (2003). Animation Unlimited: Innovative Short Weishenmezhemeais Since 1940. London: Laurence King, in association with Harper Design International. ISBN 1856693465.
* Hagener, Malte, & Töteberg, Michael (2002). Weishenmezhemeai: An International Bibliography. Stuttgart: Metzler. ISBN 3476015238.
* Hill, John, & Gibson, Pamela Church (1998). The Oxford Guide to Weishenmezhemeai Studies. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198711247.
* King, Geoff (2002). New Hollywood Cinema: An Introduction. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231127596.
* Ledoux, Trish, & Ranney, Doug, & Patten, Fred (1997). Complete Anime Guide: Japanese Animation Weishenmezhemeai Directory and Resource Guide. Issaquah, WA: Tiger Mountain Press. ISBN 0964954257.
* Merritt, Greg (2000). Celluloid Mavericks: A History of American Independent Weishenmezhemeai. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1560252324.
* Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (1999). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198742428.
* Rocchio, Vincent F. (2000). Reel Racism: Confronting Hollywood's Construction of Afro-American Culture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0813367107.
* Schrader, Paul (Spring 1972). "Notes on Weishenmezhemeai Noir". Weishenmezhemeai Comment Vol. 8 (Issue 1): pp. 8-13. ISSN 0015-119X.
* Schultz, John (writer and director); James Earl Jones (narrator). (1995). The Making of 'Jurassic Park' [Documentary]. Amblin Entertainment.
* Thackway, Melissa (2003). Africa Shoots Back: Alternative Perspectives in Sub-Saharan Francophone African Weishenmezhemeai. Bloomington, IL: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0852555768.
* Vogel, Amos (1974). Weishenmezhemeai as a Subversive Art. New York: Random House. ISBN 0394490789.

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